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“Citizen Science Among All” Participatory Bird Monitoring of the Coastal Wetland of the Limarí River, Chile

Autores:

Nuñez-Farias, P., Velásquez-Contreras, S., Ríos-Carmona, V., Velásquez-Contreras, J., Velásquez-Contreras, M., Rojas-Rojas, J., & Riveros-Flores, B.

Resumen:

We are a group of young people interested in the protection of the coastal wetland of the Limarí River, located south of the Atacama Desert in Chile. Since 2016, we have conducted participatory monitoring to analyze the [End Page E3] diversity of wetland birds in the Fray Jorge Biosphere Reserve. The reserve is a habitat for migratory and resident birds of national and international importance. However, this wetland faces constant anthropogenic threats, such as garbage accumulation, vehicle traffic, hunting of native fauna, among other problems. Citizen science has been our tool of choice to generate relevant information about this natural ecosystem, to enjoy and protect the wetland, to co-create strategies to improve human practices in the natural environment. Together with birdwatchers, scientists and naturalists, we have generated a list of 70 bird species for the site, quantifying the seasonal changes in richness and abundance of wetland species. But, the best results have been for each of the team members: during each visit to the wetland, we make new friends, we have a lot of fun, and we learn together about nature. This experience has empowered us to communicate with the inhabitants of the locality and to the state agencies why we should all take care of our coastal wetlands.

The above describes our local treasure, and we want to share the characteristics, acquired learning, and a little of the magic that makes this group unique in order to inform protagonists, students, regulators, and followers of citizen science.

Año: 2019

Palabras claves:

Referencia APA: Nuñez-Farias, P., Velásquez-Contreras, S., Ríos-Carmona, V., Velásquez-Contreras, J., Velásquez-Contreras, M., Rojas-Rojas, J., & Riveros-Flores, B. (2019). “Citizen Science Among All” Participatory Bird Monitoring of the Coastal Wetland of the Limarí River, Chile. Narrative Inquiry In Bioethics, 9(1), E3-E8. doi: 10.1353/nib.2019.0023

Antarctic Extremophiles: Biotechnological Alternative to Crop Productivity in Saline Soils

Autores:

Acuña-Rodríguez, I., Hansen, H., Gallardo-Cerda, J., Atala, C., & Molina-Montenegro, M.

Resumen:

Salinization of soils is one of the main sources of soil degradation worldwide, particularly in arid and semiarid ecosystems. High salinity results in osmotic stress and it can negatively impact plant grow and survival. Some plant species, however, can tolerate salinity by accumulating osmolytes like proline and maintaining low Na+ concentrations inside the cells. Another mechanism of saline stress tolerance is the association with symbiotic microorganism, an alternative that can be used as a biotechnological tool in susceptible crops. From the immense diversity of plant symbionts, those found in extreme environments such as Antarctica seems to be the ones with most potential since they (and their host) evolved in harsh and stressful conditions. We evaluated the effect of the inoculation with a consortium of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPB) and endosymbiotic fungi isolated from an Antarctic plant on saline stress tolerance in different crops. To test this we established 4 treatments: (i) uninoculated plants with no saline stress, (ii) uninoculated plants subjected to saline stress (200 mM NaCl), (iii) plants inoculated with the microorganism consortium with no saline stress, and (iv) inoculated plants subjected to saline stress. First, we assessed the effect of symbiont consortium on survival of four different crops (cayenne, lettuce, onion, and tomato) in order to obtain a more generalized response of this biological interaction. Second, in order to deeply the mechanisms involved in salt tolerance, in lettuce plants we measured the ecophysiological performance (Fv/Fm) and lipid peroxidation to estimate the impact of saline stress on plants. We also measured proline accumulation and NHX1 antiporter gene expression (involved in Na+ detoxification) to search for possible mechanism of stress tolerance. Additionally, root, shoot, and total biomass was also obtained as an indicator of productivity. Overall, plants inoculated with microorganisms from Antarctica increased the fitness related traits in several crops. In fact, three of four crops selected to assess the general response increased its survival under salt conditions compared with those uninoculated plants. On the other hand, saline stress negatively impacted all measured trait, but inoculated plants were significantly less affected. In control osmotic conditions, there were no differences in proline accumulation and lipid peroxidation between inoculation treatments. Interestingly, even in control salinity, Fv/Fm was higher in inoculated plants after 30 and 60 days. Under osmotic stress, Fv/Fm, proline accumulation and NHX1 expression was significantly higher and lipid peroxidation lower in inoculated plants compared to uninoculated individuals. Moreover, inoculated plants exposed to saline stress had a similar final biomass (whole plant) compared to individuals under no stress. We conclude that Antarctic extremophiles can effectively reduce the physiological impact of saline stress in a salt-susceptible crops and also highlight extreme environments such as Antarctica as a key source of microorganism with high biotechnological potential.

Año: 2019

Palabras claves: Extremophiles, Antarctica, functional symbiosis, crops, food security, salt tolerance

Referencia APA: Acuña-Rodríguez, I., Hansen, H., Gallardo-Cerda, J., Atala, C., & Molina-Montenegro, M. (2019). Antarctic Extremophiles: Biotechnological Alternative to Crop Productivity in Saline Soils. Frontiers In Bioengineering And Biotechnology, 7. doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2019.00022

Nutrient exchange in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis from a thermodynamic point of view

Autores:

Dreyer, I., Spitz, O., Kanonenberg, K., Montag, K., Handrich, M., & Ahmad, S., Schott‐Verdugo, S., Navarro‐Retamal, C., Rubio‐Meléndez, M.E., Gomez‐Porras, J.L., Riedelsberger, J., Molina‐Montenegro, M.A., Succurro, A., Zuccaro, A., Gould, S.V., Bauer, P., Schmitt, L., Gohlke, H.

Resumen:

To obtain insights into the dynamics of nutrient exchange in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, we modelled mathematically the two‐membrane system at the plant–fungus interface and simulated its dynamics.

In computational cell biology experiments, the full range of nutrient transport pathways was tested for their ability to exchange phosphorus (P)/carbon (C)/nitrogen (N) sources.

As a result, we obtained a thermodynamically justified, independent and comprehensive model of the dynamics of the nutrient exchange at the plant–fungus contact zone. The predicted optimal transporter network coincides with the transporter set independently confirmed in wet‐laboratory experiments previously, indicating that all essential transporter types have been discovered.

The thermodynamic analyses suggest that phosphate is released from the fungus via proton‐coupled phosphate transporters rather than anion channels. Optimal transport pathways, such as cation channels or proton‐coupled symporters, shuttle nutrients together with a positive charge across the membranes. Only in exceptional cases does electroneutral transport via diffusion facilitators appear to be plausible. The thermodynamic models presented here can be generalized and adapted to other forms of mycorrhiza and open the door for future studies combining wet‐laboratory experiments with computational simulations to obtain a deeper understanding of the investigated phenomena.

Año: 2018

Palabras claves: computational cell biology, modelling, nutrient transport, plant biophysics, plant–fungus interaction

Referencia APA: Dreyer, I., Spitz, O., Kanonenberg, K., Montag, K., Handrich, M., & Ahmad, S., Schott‐Verdugo, S., Navarro‐Retamal, C., Rubio‐Meléndez, M.E., Gomez‐Porras, J.L., Riedelsberger, J., Molina‐Montenegro, M.A., Succurro, A., Zuccaro, A., Gould, S.V., Bauer, P., Schmitt, L., Gohlke, H. (2019). Nutrient exchange in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis from a thermodynamic point of view. New Phytologist, 222(2), 1043-1053. doi: 10.1111/nph.15646

Coastal biophysical processes and the biogeography of rocky intertidal species along the south-eastern Pacific

Autores:

Lara, C., Saldías, G., Cazelles, B., Rivadeneira, M., Haye, P., & Broitman, B.

Resumen:

Aim
We assess the spatial distribution of a suite of coastal biophysical characteristics and how their variability is related to the distribution and geographic range of a diverse assemblage of coastal benthic species with different larval dispersal strategies.

Location
South‐eastern Pacific (SEP) coast between 18°20′S and 42°35′S.

Methods
Biophysical variability was assessed using chlorophyll‐a concentration, sea surface temperature and the signal of turbid river plumes derived from MODIS onboard the Aqua satellite. We established the dominant spatial components using wavelet and coherence analysis, and evaluated the biogeographic structure of 51 rocky intertidal species sampled over ~2,600 km along the SEP using multivariate classification and regression trees.

Results
Biogeographic breaks detected here were consistent with recent biogeographic classification schemes. Distribution breakpoints for species with lecithotrophic larvae clustered around 30°S. We observed a previously unreported break in the distribution of species with planktotrophic larval dispersal strategies around 35°S. These breaks are related to coherence in the spatial structure of sea surface temperature, chlorophyll‐a and river outflow over different temporal scales. Regions with similar biophysical characteristics, and the breaks the separate them, are in striking agreement with the biogeographic patterns revealed by the multivariate classification trees.

Main conclusions
Our results reconcile patterns of biogeographic structure reported for other groups of species along the SEP coast. We suggest that river outflow, a poorly studied coastal environmental forcing, may play an important role in determining the geographic distribution of rocky shore species, probably through its effects on larval dispersal patterns.

Año: 2018

Palabras claves: biogeographic provinces, larval dispersal, MODIS, multiscale coherence, river outflows, rocky shore invertebrates

Referencia APA: Lara, C., Saldías, G., Cazelles, B., Rivadeneira, M., Haye, P., & Broitman, B. (2019). Coastal biophysical processes and the biogeography of rocky intertidal species along the south-eastern Pacific. Journal Of Biogeography, 46(2), 420-431. doi: 10.1111/jbi.13492

Asymmetric competitive effects during species range expansion: An experimental assessment of interaction strength between “equivalent” grazer species in their range overlap

Autores:

Aguilera, M., Valdivia, N., Jenkins, S., Navarrete, S., & Broitman, B.

Resumen:

Biotic interactions are central to the development of theory and concepts in community ecology; experimental evidence has shown their strong effects on patterns of population and community organization and dynamics over local spatial scales. The role of competition in determining range limits and preventing invasions at biogeographic scales is more controversial, partly because of the complexity of processes involved in species colonization of novel habitats and the difficulties in performing appropriate manipulations and controls.

We examined experimentally whether competition is likely to affect poleward range expansion hindering or facilitating the establishment of the limpet Scurria viridula along the south‐eastern Pacific rocky shore (30°S, Chile) in the region occupied by the congeneric S. zebrina. We also assessed whether competition with the “invader” or range‐expanding species could reduce individual performance of the “native” S. zebrina and depress local populations.

Geographic field surveys were conducted to characterize the abundance and identity of limpets along the south‐eastern Pacific coast from 18°S to 41°S, and the micro‐scale (few cm) spatial distribution across the range overlap of the two species. Field‐based competition experiments were conducted at the southern leading edge of the range of S. viridula (33°S) and at the northern limit of S. zebrina (30°S).

Field surveys showed poleward range expansion of S. viridula of ca. 210 km since year 2000, with an expansion rate of 13.1 km/year. No range shift was detected for S. zebrina. The resident S. zebrina had significant negative effects on the growth rate of the invading juvenile S. viridula, while no effect of the latter was found on S. zebrina. Spatial segregation between species was found at the scale of cms.

Our results provide novel evidence of an asymmetric competitive effect of a resident species on an invader, which may hamper further range expansion. No negative effect of the invader on the resident species was detected. This study highlights the complexities of evaluating the role of species interactions in setting range limits of species, but showed how interspecific competition might slow the advance of an invader by reducing individual performance and overall population size at the advancing front.

Año: 2018

Palabras claves: field experiments, grazers, Pacific Ocean, range overlap, range shift, transitional zone

Referencia APA: Aguilera, M., Valdivia, N., Jenkins, S., Navarrete, S., & Broitman, B. (2018). Asymmetric competitive effects during species range expansion: An experimental assessment of interaction strength between “equivalent” grazer species in their range overlap. Journal Of Animal Ecology, 88(2), 277-289. doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12917

Temperature and pCO2 jointly affect the emergence and survival of cercariae from a snail host: implications for future parasitic infections in the Humboldt Current system

Autores:

Leiva, N., Manríquez, P., Aguilera, V., & González, M.

Resumen:

Ocean warming and acidification are general consequences of rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In addition to future predictions, highly productive systems such as the Humboldt Current System are characterized by important variations in both temperature and pCO2 level, but how these physical–chemical ocean changes might influence the transmission and survival of parasites has not been assessed. This study experimentally evaluated the effects of temperature (14, 18 and 25 °C) and the combined effects of temperature (∼15 and 20 °C) and pCO2 level (∼500 and 1400 microatmospheres (µatm) on the emergence and survival of two species of marine trematodes—Echinostomatidae gen. sp. and Philophthalmidae gen. sp.—both of which infect the intertidal snail Echinolittorina peruviana. Snails were collected from intertidal rocky pools in a year-round upwelling area of the northern Humboldt Current System (23°S). Two experiments assessed parasite emergence and survival by simulating emersion-immersion tidal cycles. To assess parasite survival, 2 h old cercariae (on average) were taken from a pool of infected snails incubated at 20–25 °C, and their mortality was recorded every 6 h until all the cercariae were dead. For both species, a trade-off between high emergence and low survival of cercariae was observed in the high temperature treatment. Species-specific responses to the combination of temperature and pCO2 levels were also observed: the emergence of Echinostomatidae cercariae was highest at 20 °C regardless of the pCO2 levels. By contrast, the emergence of Philophthalmidae cercariae was highest at elevated pCO2 (15 and 20 °C), suggesting that CO2 may react synergistically with temperature, increasing transmission success of this parasite in coastal ecosystems of the Humboldt Current System where water temperature and pH are expected to decrease. In conclusion, our results suggest that integrating temperature-pCO2 interactions in parasite studies is essential for understanding the consequence of climate change in future marine ecosystem health.

Año: 2018

Palabras claves: Cercariae, Climate change, Gastropod, Intertidal ecosystems, pCO2, Transmission, Trematodes

Referencia APA: Leiva, N., Manríquez, P., Aguilera, V., & González, M. (2019). Temperature and pCO2 jointly affect the emergence and survival of cercariae from a snail host: implications for future parasitic infections in the Humboldt Current system. International Journal For Parasitology, 49(1), 49-61. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2018.08.006

First insight into the heritable variation and potential response to selection of phototaxis and locomotion behavior associated to the light/dark stimuli in the abalone Haliotis discus hannai

Autores:

Defranchi, Y., Winkler, F., Farías, W., Herbinger, C., & Brokordt, K.

Resumen:

Abalones are especially susceptible to environmental lighting conditions. This factor greatly affects crucial biological process such as feeding rates, energy balance, physiological stress status, and consequently, growth and survival of farmed abalone. Most of these effects have been studied in the economically valuable abalone Haliotis discus hannai. The use of specific photoperiods, and/or light qualities and intensities, have been proposed as managing strategies to increase its production; however, for extensive off-shore or in intensive land-based farming systems, lighting conditions are not likely to be easily managed. Despite the great importance of the biological responses to the light/dark stimuli for abalone farming production, to the best of our knowledge the genetic control upon the variation associated behavioral traits have not been studied. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the heritable variation and potential responses to selection for the phototaxis [i.e., displacement towards (positive) or against (negative) the light source] and locomotion behaviors associated to the intensity of the response (i.e., crawling speed and displacement distance) to the light/dark stimuli in juvenile H. discus hannai. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between these traits were also estimated. Results showed moderate but significant heritable variations for phototaxis (h2 = 0.15) and locomotion responses (h2 = 0.18–0.37); and significant positive genetic correlations among them. Expected gain responses to selection per generation (with a selection intensity of 2.06, i.e., selecting 5% of the individuals from a population) were moderate for phototaxis variation (16%) and high for locomotion responses variation (33–67 or 36–73%, depending on the model used for the estimations). As a consequence, the potential for reducing (or incrementing, depending on the breeding goal) the reactivity or the sensibility to the light stimulus by selective breeding is good, and can be an attractive way of indirectly improving growth, survival and general welfare of farmed H. discus hannai.

Año: 2018

Palabras claves: Abalone phototaxis, Locomotion to light/dark, Phototaxis heritability, Abalone farming, Selective breeding, Haliotis discus hannai

Referencia APA: Defranchi, Y., Winkler, F., Farías, W., Herbinger, C., & Brokordt, K. (2019). First insight into the heritable variation and potential response to selection of phototaxis and locomotion behavior associated to the light/dark stimuli in the abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Aquaculture, 500, 645-650. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.10.065

Asymmetric competitive effects during species range expansion: An experimental assessment of interaction strength between “equivalent” grazer species in their range overlap

Autores:

Aguilera, M., Valdivia, N., Jenkins, S., Navarrete, S., & Broitman, B.

Resumen:

Biotic interactions are central to the development of theory and concepts in community ecology; experimental evidence has shown their strong effects on patterns of population and community organization and dynamics over local spatial scales. The role of competition in determining range limits and preventing invasions at biogeographic scales is more controversial, partly because of the complexity of processes involved in species colonization of novel habitats and the difficulties in performing appropriate manipulations and controls.

We examined experimentally whether competition is likely to affect poleward range expansion hindering or facilitating the establishment of the limpet Scurria viridula along the south‐eastern Pacific rocky shore (30°S, Chile) in the region occupied by the congeneric S. zebrina. We also assessed whether competition with the “invader” or range‐expanding species could reduce individual performance of the “native” S. zebrina and depress local populations Geographic field surveys were conducted to characterize the abundance and identity of limpets along the south‐eastern Pacific coast from 18°S to 41°S, and the micro‐scale (few cm) spatial distribution across the range overlap of the two species. Field‐based competition experiments were conducted at the southern leading edge of the range of S. viridula (33°S) and at the northern limit of S. zebrina (30°S).

Field surveys showed poleward range expansion of S. viridula of ca. 210 km since year 2000, with an expansion rate of 13.1 km/year. No range shift was detected for S. zebrina. The resident S. zebrina had significant negative effects on the growth rate of the invading juvenile S. viridula, while no effect of the latter was found on S. zebrina. Spatial segregation between species was found at the scale of cms.
Our results provide novel evidence of an asymmetric competitive effect of a resident species on an invader, which may hamper further range expansion. No negative effect of the invader on the resident species was detected. This study highlights the complexities of evaluating the role of species interactions in setting range limits of species, but showed how interspecific competition might slow the advance of an invader by reducing individual performance and overall population size at the advancing front.

Año: 2018

Palabras claves: Field experiments, Grazers, Pacific Ocean, Range overlap, Range shift, Transitional zone

Referencia APA: Aguilera, M., Valdivia, N., Jenkins, S., Navarrete, S., & Broitman, B. (2018). Asymmetric competitive effects during species range expansion: An experimental assessment of interaction strength between “equivalent” grazer species in their range overlap. Journal Of Animal Ecology, 88(2), 277-289. doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12917

The 2017 coastal El Niño

Autores:

Takahashi, K.; Aliaga-Nestares, V.; Avalos, G.; Bouchon, M.; Castro, A.; Cruzado, L.; Dewitte, B.; Gutiérrez, D.; Lavado-Casimiro, W.; Marengo, J.; Martínez, A. G.; Mosquera-Vásquez, K.; Quispe, N.

Resumen:

The original concept of El Niño consisted of anomalously high sea surface temperature and heavy rainfall along the arid northern coast of Peru (Carranza 1891; Carrillo 1893). The concept evolved into the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO; Bjerknes 1969), although the original El Niño and the Southern Oscillation do not necessarily have the same variability (Deser and Wallace 1987), and the strong El Niño episode in early 1925 coincided with cold-to-neutral ENSO conditions (Takahashi and Martínez 2017). To distinguish the near-coastal El Niño from the warm ENSO phase, Peru operationally defines the “coastal El Niño” based on the seasonal Niño 1+2 SST anomaly (ENFEN 2012; L’Heureux et al. 2017). While recent attention has been
brought to the concept of ENSO diversity (e.g., “central Pacific” vs “eastern Pacific” events; Capotondi et al. 2015), the coastal El Niño represents another facet of ENSO that requires further study in terms of its mechanisms and predictability.

Año: 2018

Palabras claves:

Referencia APA: Takahashi, K.; Aliaga-Nestares, V.; Avalos, G.; Bouchon, M.; Castro, A.; Cruzado, L.; Dewitte, B.; Gutiérrez, D.; Lavado-Casimiro, W.; Marengo, J.; Martínez, A. G.; Mosquera-Vásquez, K.; Quispe, N. (2018). The 2017 coastal El Niño. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. https://doi.org/10.1175/2018BAMSStateoftheClimate.1

Extreme El Niño Events

Autores:

Dewitte, B., & Takahashi, K.

Resumen:

Every few years the tropical Pacific warms abnormally in association with a relaxation of the trade winds, a phenomenon known as the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) that represents the strongest fluctuation of the global climate system. Although the contemporary observational record indicates that all El Niño events are not alike, differing in amplitude, warming pattern, and teleconnection, there is a class of events that stands out in terms of the societal and economical impacts: the extreme El Niño events that have occurred every 15–20 years. In this chapter, we propose an overview of the state of knowledge and of some current lines of research dedicated to extreme El Niño events. Building on the recently proposed concept of ENSO diversity, we further synthesize our current understanding of the nonlinear dynamics of this class of events and their expected evolution in a warmer climate and highlight some challenges in ENSO research.

Año: 2018

Palabras claves: El Niño, ENSO diversity, External forcing, Global warming, Teleconnection.

Referencia APA: Dewitte, B., & Takahashi, K. (2019). Extreme El Niño Events. Tropical Extremes, 165-201. doi: 10.1016/b978-0-12-809248-4.00006-6

Is Precipitation a Good Metric for Model Performance?

Autores:

Tapiador, F., Roca, R., Del Genio, A., Dewitte, B., Petersen, W., & Zhang, F.

Resumen:

Precipitation has often been used to gauge the performances of numerical weather and climate models, sometimes together with other variables such as temperature, humidity, geopotential, and clouds. Precipitation, however, is singular in that it can present a high spatial variability and probably the sharpest gradients among all meteorological fields. Moreover, its quantitative measurement is plagued with difficulties, and there are even notable differences among different reference datasets. Several additional issues sometimes lead to questions about its usefulness in model validation. This essay discusses the use of precipitation for model verification and validation and the crucial role of highly precise and reliable satellite estimates, such as those from NASA’s Global Precipitation Mission Core Observatory.

Año: 2018

Palabras claves:

Referencia APA: Tapiador, F., Roca, R., Del Genio, A., Dewitte, B., Petersen, W., & Zhang, F. (2019). Is Precipitation a Good Metric for Model Performance?. Bulletin Of The American Meteorological Society, 100(2), 223-233. doi: 10.1175/bams-d-17-0218.1

Chapter 29 – Chile: Environmental Status and Future Perspectives

Autores:

Aguilera, M., Aburto, J., Bravo, L., Broitman, B., García, R., & Gaymer, C., Gelcich, S., López, B.A., Montecino, V., Pauchard, A., Ramos, M., Rutllant, J.A., Sáez, C.A., Valdivia, N., Thiel, M.

Resumen:

The coast of mainland Chile extends from 18°S to about 56°S, and is about 4200 km long. In the north, the coast is characterized by continuous, regular, and wave-exposed shores, while to south of 40°S it is highly fragmented, with extensive fjords and small archipelagos with many wave-protected zones. The Humboldt Current System (HCS) determines oceanographic and ecological processes in the northern part, with persistent upwelling fronts and episodic “El Niño” events. In the southern part the southward-flowing Magellan Current is important. Coastal upwelling along the HCS sustains a diverse pelagic and benthic food web structure. Rocky coastal habitats are dominated by large kelp forests and filter-feeding species like reef-forming mussels and tunicates.

The main coastal habitats along the coast of Chile are rocky shores, sandy beaches, coastal wetlands, and dunes. The main populated zones are concentrated between 33°S to 35°S in central Chile, with economically important trading ports. Sewage discharges from large cities have the potential to increase nutrients levels in nearshore habitats causing localized eutrophication. Mining activities in northern Chile contaminate coastal waters, while in the south intensive aquaculture affects the fjord ecosystem. Also, subsistence harvesting (of kelps, molluscs, fish) is dramatically reducing the abundance of top consumers or habitat-forming species.

The diverse and productive coastal marine ecosystems are used by different socioeconomic activities and exposed to interventions which are potentially harmful. Ecosystem services should be managed, and necessary interventions carefully planned. Achieving sustainable use of natural marine resources and coastal ecosystem integrity is challenging, and a basic understanding of ecosystem responses to direct human impacts and global climate change require better monitoring strategies. The establishment of a marine reserve “Humboldt Current System” would be a major step toward this goal.

Año: 2019

Palabras claves: Continental Chile, Climate, Coastal Ecology, Human interventions, Humboldt Current System, Oceanography, Southeastern Pacific.

Referencia APA: Aguilera, M., Aburto, J., Bravo, L., Broitman, B., García, R., & Gaymer, C., Gelcich, S., López, B.A., Montecino, V., Pauchard, A., Ramos, M., Rutllant, J.A., Sáez, C.A., Valdivia, N., Thiel, M. (2019). Chile: Environmental Status and Future Perspectives. World Seas: An Environmental Evaluation, 673-702. doi: 10.1016/b978-0-12-805068-2.00046-2