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Evaluating optically stimulated luminescence rock surface exposure dating as a novel approach for reconstructing coastal boulder movement on decadal to centennial timescales

Autores:

Brill, D., May, S. M., Mhammdi, N., King, G., Lehmann, B., Burow, C., Wolf, D., Zander, A., and Brückner, H.

Resumen:

Wave-transported boulders represent important records of storm and tsunami impact over geological timescales. Their use for hazard assessment requires chronological information on their displacement that in many cases cannot be achieved by established dating approaches. To fill this gap, this study investigated, for the first time, the potential of optically stimulated luminescence rock surface exposure dating (OSL-RSED) for estimating cliff-detachment ages of wave-transported coastal boulders. The approach was tested on calcarenite clasts at the Rabat coast, Morocco. Calibration of the OSL-RSED model was based on samples with rock surfaces exposed to sunlight for ∼ 2 years, and OSL exposure ages were evaluated against age control deduced from satellite images. Our results show that the dating precision is limited for all targeted boulders due to the local source rock lithology which has low amounts of quartz and feldspar. The dating accuracy may be affected by erosion rates on boulder surfaces of 0.02–0.18 mm yr−1. Nevertheless, we propose a robust relative chronology for boulders that are not affected by significant post-depositional erosion and that share surface angles of inclination with the calibration samples. The relative chronology indicates that (i) most boulders were detached from the cliff by storm waves; (ii) these storms lifted boulders with masses of up to ∼ 24 t; and (iii) the role of storms in the formation of boulder deposits along the Rabat coast is more significant than previously assumed. Although OSL-RSED cannot provide reliable absolute exposure ages for the coastal boulders in this study, the approach has large potential for boulder deposits composed of rocks with larger amounts of quartz or feldspar and less susceptibility to erosion.

Año: 2021

Palabras claves:

Referencia APA: Brill, D., May, S. M., Mhammdi, N., King, G., Lehmann, B., Burow, C., Wolf, D., Zander, A., and Brückner, H. (2021). Evaluating optically stimulated luminescence rock surface exposure dating as a novel approach for reconstructing coastal boulder movement on decadal to centennial timescales, Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 205–234, https://doi.org/10.5194/esurf-9-205-2021.

Climate models capture key features of extreme precipitation probabilities across regions

Autores:

Cristian Martinez-Villalobos and J David Neelin

Resumen:

Quantitative simulation of precipitation in current climate has been an ongoing challenge for global climate models. Despite serious biases in correctly simulating probabilities of extreme rainfall events, model simulations under global warming scenarios are routinely used to provide estimates of future changes in these probabilities. To minimize the impact of model biases, past literature tends to evaluate fractional (instead of absolute) changes in probabilities of precipitation extremes under the assumption that fractional changes would be more reliable. However, formal tests for the validity of this assumption have been lacking. Here we evaluate two measures that address properties important to the correct simulation of future fractional probability changes of precipitation extremes, and that can be assessed with current climate data. The first measure tests climate model performance in simulating the characteristic shape of the probability of occurrence of daily precipitation extremes and the second measure tests whether the key parameter governing the scaling of this shape is well reproduced across regions and seasons in current climate. Contrary to concerns regarding the reliability of global models for extreme precipitation assessment, our results show most models lying within the current range of observational uncertainty in these measures. Thus, most models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 ensemble pass two key tests in current climate that support the usefulness of fractional measures to evaluate future changes in the probability of precipitation extremes.

Año: 2021

Palabras claves:

Referencia APA: Martinez-Villalobos, C., and Neelin, J.D. (2021). Climate models capture key features of extreme precipitation probabilities across regions. Environ. Res. Lett. 16 024017

DOI:

Combined effect of pCO2 and temperature levels on the thermal niche in the early benthic ontogeny of a keystone species

Autores:

Manríquez, P., Jara, M., González, C., Díaz, M., Brokordt, K., & Lattuca, M., Peck, M.A., Alter, K., Marras, S., Domenici, P.

Resumen:

We evaluated the effects of projected, near future ocean acidification (OA) and extreme events of temperature (warming or cooling) on the thermal tolerance of Concholepas concholepas, a coastal benthic keystone species. Three separate trials of an experiment were conducted by exposing juvenile C. concholepas for 1 month to one of two contrasting pCO2 levels (~500 and ~1200 μatm). In addition, each pCO2 level was combined with one of four temperature treatments. The control was 15 °C, whilst the other temperatures were 10 °C (Trial 1), 20 °C (Trial 2) and 25 °C (Trial 3). At the end of each trial, we assessed Critical Thermal maximum (CTmax) and min- imum (CTmin) via self-righting success, calculated partial thermal tolerance polygons, measured somatic growth, determined transcription of Heat Shock Proteins 70 (HSP70) and measured oxygen consumption rates. Regardless of pCO2 level, HSP70 transcript levels were significantly higher in juveniles after exposure to extreme temperatures (10 °C and 25 °C) indicating physiological stress. Oxygen consumption rates increased with in- creasing temperature from 10 °C to 20 °C though showed a decrease at 25 °C. This rate was not affected by pCO2 or the interaction between temperature and pCO2. Juveniles exposed to present-day and near future pCO2 levels at 20 °C showed similar thermal tolerance polygonal areas; whilst changes in both CTmin and CTmax at 25 °C and 10 °C caused narrower and broader areas, respectively. Temperature affected growth, oxygen consumption and HSP70 transcription in small juvenile C. concholepas. Exposure to elevated pCO2 did not affect thermal tolerance, growth or oxygen consumption at temperatures within the thermal range normally experi- enced by this species in northern Chile (15-20 °C). At elevated pCO2 conditions, however, exposure to warmer (25 °C) or colder (10 °C) temperatures reduced or increased the thermal area, respectively. This study demon- strates the importance of examining the thermal-tolerance edges to better understand how OA and temperature will combine to physiologically challenge inter-tidal organisms.

Año: 2020

Palabras claves:

Referencia APA: Manríquez, P., Jara, M., González, C., Díaz, M., Brokordt, K., & Lattuca, M., Peck, M.A., Alter, K., Marras, S., Domenici, P. (2020). Combined effect of pCO2 and temperature levels on the thermal niche in the early benthic ontogeny of a keystone species. Science Of The Total Environment, 719, 137239. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137239

pH and other upwelling hydrographic drivers in regulating copepod reproduction during the 2015 El Niño event: A follow-up study

Autores:

Aguilera, V.

Resumen:

The combined upwelling-El Niño (EN) event regulation of the numerically dominant Acartia tonsa (Crustacea, Copepoda) reproduction was examined in a year-round upwelling system (23°S) of the Humboldt Eastern Boundary Upwelling System (EBUS) during the EN 2015. A previous analysis of the environmental regulation of this system is extended here by considering complementary oceanographic information (sea level, stratification indexes) and additional reproductive traits, such as maximum (MaxEPR), median (MedianEPR) and prevalence of egg producing females over a period of six months. Furthermore, field minimum-maximum pH levels were reproduced in three 96-h incubation experiments conducted under variable salinity conditions to evaluate copepod mean EPR, egg size and hatching success. Supporting previous assertions, the warm-high salinity EN 2015 was observed in the study site separately from hydrographic conditions associated with upwelling to non-upwelling regimes. Analysis of similarity-distance (Distance based Linear Model (DistLM)) and normalized data (separate-slope comparison under a General Linear Model (GLM)) showed that reproductive traits were regulated by specific combinations of ambient conditions, and that this regulation was also sensitive to the prevailing hydrographic regime. Thus, upwelling to non-upwelling transitions changing the pH, and EN-associated salinity and stratification shifts, were significantly and strongly linked to almost all reproductive traits (DistLM). Slope comparison (GLM) indicated MaxEPR and MedianEPR variations also underlie the phenology, highlighting the relationship between pH and salinity with biological variations. In conjunction with experimental observations, the current study consistently suggests that pH-variations in the upwelling realm, and EN hydrographic perturbations might underpin responses of plankton populations to climate change in productive EBUS.

Año: 2020

Palabras claves: Eastern boundary upwelling systems, Intra-seasonal variationsInter-annual variations, Ocean acidification, Zooplankton physiology

Referencia APA: Aguilera, V. (2020). pH and other upwelling hydrographic drivers in regulating copepod reproduction during the 2015 El Niño event: A follow-up study. Estuarine, Coastal And Shelf Science, 234, 106640. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2020.106640

Antagonistic interplay between pH and food resources affects copepod traits and performance in a year-round upwelling system

Autores:

Aguilera, V., Vargas, C., & Dam, H.

Resumen:

Linking pH/pCO2 natural variation to phenotypic traits and performance of foundational species provides essential information for assessing and predicting the impact of ocean acidification (OA) on marine ecosystems. Yet, evidence of such linkage for copepods, the most abundant metazoans in the oceans, remains scarce, particularly for naturally corrosive Eastern Boundary Upwelling systems (EBUs). This study assessed the relationship between pH levels and traits (body and egg size) and performance (ingestion rate (IR) and egg reproduction rate (EPR)) of the numerically dominant neritic copepod Acartia tonsa, in a year-round upwelling system of the northern (23° S) Humboldt EBUs. The study revealed decreases in chlorophyll (Chl) ingestion rate, egg production rate and egg size with decreasing pH as well as egg production efficiency, but the opposite for copepod body size. Further, ingestion rate increased hyperbolically with Chl, and saturated at ~1 µg Chl. L−1. Food resources categorized as high (H, >1 µg L−1) and low (L, <1 µg L−1) levels, and pH-values categorized as equivalent to present day (≤400 µatm pCO2, pH > 7.89) and future (>400 µatm pCO2, pH < 7.89) were used to compare our observations to values globally employed to experimentally test copepod sensitivity to OA. A comparison (PERMANOVA) test with Chl/pH (2*2) design showed that partially overlapping OA levels expected for the year 2100 in other ocean regions, low-pH conditions in this system negatively impacted traits and performance associated with copepod fitness. However, interacting antagonistically with pH, food resource (Chl) maintained copepod production in spite of low pH levels. Thus, the deleterious effects of ocean acidification are modulated by resource availability in this system.

Año: 2020

Palabras claves: Scientific Reports

Referencia APA: Aguilera, V., Vargas, C., & Dam, H. (2020). Antagonistic interplay between pH and food resources affects copepod traits and performance in a year-round upwelling system. Scientific Reports, 10(1). doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-56621-6

Using remote sensing to detect whale strandings in remote areas: The case of sei whales mass mortality in Chilean Patagonia

Autores:

Fretwell, P., Jackson, J., Ulloa Encina, M., Häussermann, V., Perez Alvarez, M., Olavarría, C., & Gutstein, C.

Resumen:

We test the ability of Very High Resolution satellite (VHR) imagery to detect stranded whales using both manual and automated methods. We use the 2015 mass mortality event in the Gulf of Penas locality, central Patagonia, Chile, as an initial case study. This event was the largest known mass mortality of baleen whales, with at least 343 whales, mainly sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis), documented as stranding. However, even with such a large number of whales, due to the remote location of the gulf the strandings went unrecorded for several weeks. Aerial and boat surveys of the area were conducted two to four months after the mortality event. In this study we use 50cm resolution WorldView2 imagery to identify and count strandings from two archival images acquired just after the stranding event and two months before the aerial and ground surveys, and to test manual and automated methods of detecting stranded whales. Our findings show that whales are easily detected manually in the images but due to the heterogeneous colouration of decomposing whales, spectral indices are unsuitable for automatic detection. Our satellite counts suggest that, at the time the satellite images were taken, more whales were stranded than recorded in the aerial survey, possibly due to the non-comprehensive coverage of the aerial survey or movement of the carcases between survey acquisition. With even higher resolution imagery now available, satellite imagery may be a cost effective alternative to aerial surveys for future assessment of the extent of mass whale stranding events, especially in remote and inaccessible areas.

Año: 2019

Palabras claves: Whales, Islands, Image analysis, Boats, Beaches, Remote areas, Geological surveys, Marine mammals

Referencia APA: Fretwell, P., Jackson, J., Ulloa Encina, M., Häussermann, V., Perez Alvarez, M., Olavarría, C., & Gutstein, C. (2019). Using remote sensing to detect whale strandings in remote areas: The case of sei whales mass mortality in Chilean Patagonia. PLOS ONE, 14(10), e0222498. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222498

DOI:

Seasonal variability of the southern tip of the Oxygen Minimum Zone in the eastern South Pacific (30°-38°S): A modeling study.

Autores:

Pizarro‐Koch, M., Pizarro, O., Dewitte, B., Montes, I., Ramos, M., Paulmier, A., & Garçon, V.

Resumen:

We investigate the seasonal variability of the southern tip (30°–38°S) of the eastern South Pacific oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) based on a high horizontal resolution (1/12°) regional coupled physical‐biogeochemical model simulation. The simulation is validated by available in situ observations and the OMZ seasonal variability is documented. The model OMZ, bounded by the contour of 45 μM, occupies a large volume (4.5x104 km3) during the beginning of austral winter and a minimum (3.5x104 km3) at the end of spring, just 1 and 2 months after the southward transport of the Peru‐Chile Undercurrent (PCUC) is maximum and minimum, respectively. We showed that the PCUC significantly impacts the alongshore advection of dissolved oxygen (DO) modulating the OMZ seasonal variability. However, zonal transport of DO by meridionally alternating zonal jets and mesoscale eddy fluxes play also a major role in the seasonal and spatial variability of the OMZ. Consistently, a DO budget analysis reveals a significant contribution of advection terms to the rate of change of DO and the prominence of mesoscale variability within the seasonal cycle of these terms. Biogeochemical processes and horizontal and vertical mixing, associated with subgrid scale processes, play only a secondary role in the OMZ seasonal cycle. Overall, our study illustrates the interplay of mean and (mesoscale) eddy‐induced transports of DO in shaping the OMZ and its seasonal cycle off Central Chile.

Año: 2019

Palabras claves: Oxygen minimum zone, Eddy fluxes, Peru‐Chile Undercurrent, Oxygen budget, Eastern South Pacific

Referencia APA: Pizarro‐Koch, M., Pizarro, O., Dewitte, B., Montes, I., Ramos, M., Paulmier, A., & Garçon, V. (2019). Seasonal Variability of the Southern Tip of the Oxygen Minimum Zone in the Eastern South Pacific (30°‐38°S): A Modeling Study. Journal Of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124(12), 8574-8604. doi: 10.1029/2019jc015201

The rise and demise of plastic shopping bags in Chile – Broad and informal coalition supporting ban as a first step to reduce single-use plastics

Autores:

Amenábar Cristi, M., Holzapfel, C., Nehls, M., De Veer, D., Gonzalez, C., & Holtmann, G., Honorato-Zimmer, D., Kiessling, T., Leyton Munoz, A., Narvaez Reyes, S., Nunez, P., Sepulveda, J.M., Vásquez, N., Thiel, M.

Resumen:

Single-use plastic bags (SUPBs) were introduced to society as a way to facilitate our daily lives, but due to their low post-use value they are found as litter in many different environments, from urban to rural and remote, natural environments. Given the increasing awareness about environmental litter, many communities have banned SUPBs in the recent past. Here we explore an emerging economy to document the rise and demise of SUPBs in society. Through a review of scientific and grey literature (including governmental documents and media coverage) we reconstruct the timeline of SUPBs in Chile, including the development of the plastic industry and retail business within Chile, the introduction, spread and finally the demise of SUPBs. Focused on the demise phase, we document the creation and succession of municipal ordinances to reduce SUPBs in local commerce, and the development of a national law to regulate the use of SUPBs. In order to document the involvement of the general public during the demise phase, we also examined current behavior and behavioral intentions of people in (i) a local project introducing reusable cloth bags to reduce the use of SUPBs, and (ii) a consumer survey about public perception of SUPBs and their use. Plastic bags were introduced in Chile in the 1970s, then spread with the emergence of supermarkets and retail stores in the 1980s and 1990s, and were widely used in commerce by the turn of the century. During the first decade of the 21st century the first scientific studies reported large amounts of plastic litter and high proportions of single-use plastics in coastal environments, public awareness grew, and numerous initiatives aiming to reduce consumption and littering of plastics developed. The first municipal ban of SUPBs in 2013 was emulated during the following five years by 62 other Chilean municipalities and in 2018 translated into a national law, which was highly approved and supported by the population. We conclude that the ban of SUBPs in Chile was facilitated by a broad concern among the general public, which led to a bottom-up movement culminating in the national government taking stakes in the issue. Finally, we argue that this can only be a first step that must be followed by further actions to abolish single-use products in order to effectively protect the environment and in particular the world's oceans.

Año: 2019

Palabras claves: Marine litter, Willingness to engage, Socio-economic factors, Pro-environmental behavior, Waste management.

Referencia APA: Amenábar Cristi, M., Holzapfel, C., Nehls, M., De Veer, D., Gonzalez, C., & Holtmann, G., Honorato-Zimmer, D., Kiessling, T., Leyton Munoz, A., Narvaez Reyes, S., Nunez, P., Sepulveda, J.M., Vásquez, N., Thiel, M. (2019). The rise and demise of plastic shopping bags in Chile – Broad and informal coalition supporting ban as a first step to reduce single-use plastics. Ocean & Coastal Management, 105079. doi: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2019.105079

Seasonal Variability of the Southern Tip of the Oxygen Minimum Zone in the Eastern South Pacific (30°‐38°S): A Modeling Study

Autores:

Pizarro‐Koch, M., Pizarro, O., Dewitte, B., Montes, I., Ramos, M., Paulmier, A., & Garçon, V.

Resumen:

We investigate the seasonal variability of the southern tip (30°–38°S) of the eastern South Pacific oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) based on a high horizontal resolution (1/12°) regional coupled physical‐biogeochemical model simulation. The simulation is validated by available in situ observations and the OMZ seasonal variability is documented. The model OMZ, bounded by the contour of 45 μM, occupies a large volume (4.5x104 km3) during the beginning of austral winter and a minimum (3.5x104 km3) at the end of spring, just 1 and 2 months after the southward transport of the Peru‐Chile Undercurrent (PCUC) is maximum and minimum, respectively. We showed that the PCUC significantly impacts the alongshore advection of dissolved oxygen (DO) modulating the OMZ seasonal variability. However, zonal transport of DO by meridionally alternating zonal jets and mesoscale eddy fluxes play also a major role in the seasonal and spatial variability of the OMZ. Consistently, a DO budget analysis reveals a significant contribution of advection terms to the rate of change of DO and the prominence of mesoscale variability within the seasonal cycle of these terms. Biogeochemical processes and horizontal and vertical mixing, associated with subgrid scale processes, play only a secondary role in the OMZ seasonal cycle. Overall, our study illustrates the interplay of mean and (mesoscale) eddy‐induced transports of DO in shaping the OMZ and its seasonal cycle off Central Chile.

Año: 2019

Palabras claves: Oxygen minimum zone, Eddy fluxes, Peru‐Chile Undercurrent, Oxygen budget, Eastern South Pacific

Referencia APA: Pizarro‐Koch, M., Pizarro, O., Dewitte, B., Montes, I., Ramos, M., Paulmier, A., & Garçon, V. (2019). Seasonal Variability of the Southern Tip of the Oxygen Minimum Zone in the Eastern South Pacific (30°‐38°S): A Modeling Study. Journal Of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124(12), 8574-8604. doi: 10.1029/2019jc015201

Antagonistic interplay between pH and food resources affects copepod traits and performance in a year-round upwelling system

Autores:

Aguilera, V., Vargas, C., & Dam, H.

Resumen:

Linking pH/pCO2 natural variation to phenotypic traits and performance of foundational species provides essential information for assessing and predicting the impact of ocean acidification (OA) on marine ecosystems. Yet, evidence of such linkage for copepods, the most abundant metazoans in the oceans, remains scarce, particularly for naturally corrosive Eastern Boundary Upwelling systems (EBUs). This study assessed the relationship between pH levels and traits (body and egg size) and performance (ingestion rate (IR) and egg reproduction rate (EPR)) of the numerically dominant neritic copepod Acartia tonsa, in a year-round upwelling system of the northern (23° S) Humboldt EBUs. The study revealed decreases in chlorophyll (Chl) ingestion rate, egg production rate and egg size with decreasing pH as well as egg production efficiency, but the opposite for copepod body size. Further, ingestion rate increased hyperbolically with Chl, and saturated at ~1 µg Chl. L−1. Food resources categorized as high (H, >1 µg L−1) and low (L, <1 µg L−1) levels, and pH-values categorized as equivalent to present day (≤400 µatm pCO2, pH > 7.89) and future (>400 µatm pCO2, pH < 7.89) were used to compare our observations to values globally employed to experimentally test copepod sensitivity to OA. A comparison (PERMANOVA) test with Chl/pH (2*2) design showed that partially overlapping OA levels expected for the year 2100 in other ocean regions, low-pH conditions in this system negatively impacted traits and performance associated with copepod fitness. However, interacting antagonistically with pH, food resource (Chl) maintained copepod production in spite of low pH levels. Thus, the deleterious effects of ocean acidification are modulated by resource availability in this system.

Año: 2020

Palabras claves:

Referencia APA: Aguilera, V., Vargas, C., & Dam, H. (2020). Antagonistic interplay between pH and food resources affects copepod traits and performance in a year-round upwelling system. Scientific Reports, 10(1). doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-56621-6

Can hydraulic traits help to explain the current distributional limits in two Nothofagus species in the Chilean Andes?

Autores:

Carrasco-Urra, F., Saldaña, A., Molina-Montenegro, M.A.

Resumen:

The Andes of central Chile is a geographical gradient with a marked variation in its climatic conditions. Along its
slopes, are distributed the evergreen Nothofagus dombeyi and deciduous Nothofagus pumilio species that show
differences in their leaf habits, range extensions, and in their limits of latitudinal distribution. Plant ecology
proposes that unfavorable climatic conditions are limiting factors that determine the tree species distributions
and that the functional hydraulic traits responses allow understanding the mechanisms underlying the current
distribution of them. We hypothesize that both species will have lower mean values of KL and KS in populations
near to distribution limits compared with middle populations due that unfavorable climatic conditions are
predominant in the latitudinal range limits. We quantify in situ the leaf (KL) and xylem (KS) specific hydraulic conductivities in populations of N. dombeyi and N. pumilio near their northern and southern limits of distribution
as well as in a middle population along Chilean Andes. Results showed that both species had lower mean values
in populations near northern and southern limits compared to populations distributed in middle sites. Also, we
found that the hydraulic performance population of N. pumilio distributed in the middle site had higher than
N. dombeyi. We concluded that lower hydraulic conductivity associated with distribution limits for both study
species implies a lower probability of being affected by embolism, independently of their leaf habits, showing a
functional hydraulic convergence to low water availability or cold.

Año: 2019

Palabras claves: embolism, evergreen vs deciduous, hydraulic traits, Nothofagus , species distribution.

Referencia APA: Carrasco-Urra, F., Saldaña, A., Molina-Montenegro, M.A. (2019). Can hydraulic traits help to explain the current distributional limits in two Nothofagus species in the Chilean Andes?. Gayana Bot. vol. 76, No. 2, 237-246

DOI:

An analysis of modern pollen rain on an elevational gradient in the High-Andes of Central Chile (33°)

Autores:

Fernández Murillo, M.P., Cuevas, J.G., Maldonado, A.

Resumen:

The superficial pollen records are tools for the vegetal reconstruction of a certain area. Like a plant record,
pollen can be used to classify plant formations and determine plant diversity. Although some studies show the
relationship between pollen and vegetation in Chile, few have explored the pollen diversity in an altitudinal
gradient and its sensitivity as a marker of altitudinal belts. Consequently, we used pollen samples of surface soil
and by means of morphological identification, cluster analysis and zonation we determined the pollen groups
that represent the vegetation floors in an altitudinal gradient. Moreover, we compared pollen diversity among
these floors for three basins of the Chilean Central Andes as a comprehensive index of the pollen composition
and abundance. In the Laguna del Viento basin, four pollen groups coincided with the plant floors previously defined in the literature: sub Andean, Andean, and High Andean. The latter one was subdivided into two groups.
In the El Yeso basin, two pollen groups were determined, all corresponding to the Andean floor, and finally in
the El Volcán basin, two pollen groups were recorded that are related to the sub Andean and Andean vegetation
floors. On the other hand, only in one basin the pollen diversity decreased with the altitude. These results
showed that pollen assemblages can distinguish plant floors, but with a lower resolution than when using
established flora, probably due to the pollen taxonomic resolution, differential production and dispersal factors.

Año: 2019

Palabras claves: Altitude, Andes of Central Chile, diversity, pollen, vegetal distribution.

Referencia APA: Fernández Murillo, M.P., Cuevas, J.G., Maldonado, A. (2019).An analysis of modern pollen rain on an elevational gradient in the High-Andes of Central Chile (33°). Gayana Bot. vol. 76, No. 2, 220-23.

DOI: