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Isolation and characterization of Pb-solubilizing bacteria and their effects on Pb uptake by Brassica juncea: implications for microbe-assisted phytoremediation

Autores:

Yahaghi, Z., Shirvani, M., Nourbakhsh, F., de la Peña, T.C., Pueyo, J.J., Talebi, M.

Resumen:

The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize lead (Pb)-solubilizing bacteria from heavy metal-contaminated mine soils and to evaluate their inoculation effects on the growth and Pb absorption of Brassica juncea. The isolates were also evaluated for their plant growth-promoting characteristics as well as heavy metal and salt tolerance. A total of 171 Pb-tolerant isolates were identified, of which only 15 bacterial strains were able to produce clear haloes in solid medium containing PbO or PbCO3, indicating Pb solubilization. All of these 15 strains were also able to dissolve the Pb minerals in a liquid medium, which was accompanied by significant decreases in pH values of the medium. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the Pb-solubilizing strains belonged to genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Brevibacterium, and Staphylococcus. A majority of the Pb-solubilizing strains were able to produce indole acetic acid and siderophores to different extents. Two of the Pb-solubilizing isolates were able to solubilize inorganic phosphate as well. Some of the strains displayed tolerance to different heavy metals and to salt stress and were able to grow in a wide pH range. Inoculation with two selected Pb-solubilizing and plant growth-promoting strains, (i.e., Brevibacterium frigoritolerans YSP40 and Bacillus paralicheniformis YSP151) and their consortium enhanced the growth and Pb uptake of B. juncea plants grown in a metal-contaminated soil. The bacterial strains isolated in this study are promising candidates to develop novel microbe-assisted phytoremediation strategies for metal-contaminated soils.

Año: 2018

Palabras claves: Metal-solubilizing bacteria, PGPR, contaminated soils, lead, phytoremediation

Referencia APA: Yahaghi, Z., Shirvani, M., Nourbakhsh, F., de la Peña, T.C., Pueyo, J.J., Talebi, M. (2018). Isolation and characterization of Pb-solubilizing bacteria and their effects on Pb uptake by Brassica juncea: implications for microbe-assisted phytoremediation. https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1712.12038

Decoding the gene coexpression network underlying the ability of Gevuina avellana to live in diverse light conditions

Autores:

Ostria-Gallardo, E., Ranjan, A., Ichihashi, Y., Corcuera, L., & Sinha, N.

Resumen:

Gevuina avellana (Proteaceae) is a typical tree from the South American temperate rainforest. Although this species mostly regenerates in shaded understories, it exhibits an exceptional ecological breadth, being able to live under a wide range of light conditions. Here we studied the genetic basis that underlies physiological acclimation of the photosynthetic responses of G. avellana under contrasting light conditions.
We analyzed carbon assimilation and light energy used for photochemical processes in plants acclimated to contrasting light conditions. Also, we used a transcriptional profile of leaf primordia from G. avellana saplings growing under different light environments in their natural habitat, to identify the gene coexpression network underpinning photosynthetic performance and light‐related processes.
The photosynthetic parameters revealed optimal performance regardless of light conditions. Strikingly, the mechanism involved in dissipation of excess light energy showed no significant differences between high‐ and low‐light‐acclimated plants. The gene coexpression network defined a community structure consistent with the photochemical responses, including genes involved mainly in assembly and functioning of photosystems, photoprotection, and retrograde signaling.
This ecophysiological genomics approach improves our understanding of the intraspecific variability that allows G. avellana to have optimal photochemical and photoprotective mechanisms in the diverse light habitats it encounters in nature.

Año: 2018

Palabras claves: Gene coexpression network, Gevuina avellana, light acclimation, photosynthesis, temperate rainforest

Referencia APA: Ostria-Gallardo, E., Ranjan, A., Ichihashi, Y., Corcuera, L., & Sinha, N. (2018). Decoding the gene coexpression network underlying the ability of Gevuina avellana to live in diverse light conditions. New Phytologist, 220(1), 278-287. doi: 10.1111/nph.15278

Antarctic rhizobacteria improve salt tolerance and physiological performance of the Antarctic vascular plants

Autores:

Gallardo-Cerda, J., Levihuan, J., Lavín, P., Oses, R., Atala, C., & Torres-Díaz, C., Cuba-Díaz, M., Barrera, A., Molina-Montenegro, M.A.

Resumen:

The two native Antarctic vascular plants, Deschampsia antarctica and Colobanthus quitensis, are mostly restricted to coastal habitats where they are often exposed to sea spray with high levels of salinity. Most of the studies regarding the ability of C. quitensis and D. antarctica to cope with abiotic stress have been focused on their physiological adaptations to tolerate cold stress, but little is known about their tolerance to salinity. We investigated whether rhizospheric bacteria associated to D. antarctica and C. quitensis improve the ability of Antarctic plants to tolerate salt stress. Salt tolerance was assayed in rhizospheric bacteria, and also their effects on the ecophysiological performance (photochemical efficiency of PSII, growth, and survival) of both plants were assessed under salt stress. A total of eight bacterial rhizospheric strains capable of growing at 4 °C were isolated. The strains isolated from D. antarctica showed higher levels of salt tolerance than those strains isolated from C. quitensis. The ecophysiological performance of C. quitensis and D. antarctica was significantly increased when plants were inoculated with rhizospheric bacteria. Our results suggest that rhizospheric bacteria improve the ability of both plants to tolerate salinity stress with positive effects on the adaptation and survival of vascular plants to current conditions in Antarctic ecosystem.

Año: 2018

Palabras claves: Salt tolerance, Antarctica, Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, Colobanthus quitensis, Deschampsia antarctica

Referencia APA: Gallardo-Cerda, J., Levihuan, J., Lavín, P., Oses, R., Atala, C., & Torres-Díaz, C., Cuba-Díaz, M., Barrera, A., Molina-Montenegro, M.A. (2018). Antarctic rhizobacteria improve salt tolerance and physiological performance of the Antarctic vascular plants. Polar Biology, 41(10), 1973-1982. doi: 10.1007/s00300-018-2336-z

Decadal modulation of the relationship between intraseasonal tropical variability and ENSO

Autores:

Guschina, D., Dewitte, B.

Resumen:

The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) amplitude is modulated at decadal timescales, which, over the last decades, has been related to the low-frequency changes in the frequency of occurrence of the two types of El Niño events, that is the Eastern Pacific (EP) and Central Pacific (CP) El Niños. Meanwhile ENSO is tightly linked to the intraseasonal tropical variability (ITV) that is generally enhanced prior to El Niño development and can act as a trigger of the event. Here we revisit the ITV/ENSO relationship taking into account changes in ENSO properties over the last six decades. The focus is on two main components of ITV, the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO) and convectively coupled equatorial Rossby waves (ER). We show that the ITV/ENSO relationship exhibits a decadal modulation that is not related in a straight-forward manner to the change in occurrence of El Niño types and Pacific decadal modes. While enhanced MJO activity associated to EP El Niño development mostly took place over the period 1985–2000, the ER activity is enhanced prior to El Niño development over the whole period with a tendency to relate more to CP El Niño than to EP El Niño. In particular the relationship between ER activity and ENSO was particularly strong for the period 2000–2015, which results in a significant positive long-term trend of the predictive value of ER activity. The statistics of the MJO and ER activity is consistent with the hypothesis that they can be considered a state-dependent noise for ENSO linked to distinct lower frequency climate modes.

Año: 2018

Palabras claves: Intraseasonal tropical variability, El Niño, Decadal modulation

Referencia APA: Gushchina, D., & Dewitte, B. (2018). Decadal modulation of the relationship between intraseasonal tropical variability and ENSO. Climate Dynamics. doi: 10.1007/s00382-018-4235-y

Decadal modulation of the relationship between intraseasonal tropical variability and ENSO

Autores:

Gushchina, D., & Dewitte, B.

Resumen:

The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) amplitude is modulated at decadal timescales, which, over the last decades, has been related to the low-frequency changes in the frequency of occurrence of the two types of El Niño events, that is the Eastern Pacific (EP) and Central Pacific (CP) El Niños. Meanwhile ENSO is tightly linked to the intraseasonal tropical variability (ITV) that is generally enhanced prior to El Niño development and can act as a trigger of the event. Here we revisit the ITV/ENSO relationship taking into account changes in ENSO properties over the last six decades. The focus is on two main components of ITV, the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO) and convectively coupled equatorial Rossby waves (ER). We show that the ITV/ENSO relationship exhibits a decadal modulation that is not related in a straight-forward manner to the change in occurrence of El Niño types and Pacific decadal modes. While enhanced MJO activity associated to EP El Niño development mostly took place over the period 1985–2000, the ER activity is enhanced prior to El Niño development over the whole period with a tendency to relate more to CP El Niño than to EP El Niño. In particular the relationship between ER activity and ENSO was particularly strong for the period 2000–2015, which results in a significant positive long-term trend of the predictive value of ER activity. The statistics of the MJO and ER activity is consistent with the hypothesis that they can be considered a state-dependent noise for ENSO linked to distinct lower frequency climate modes.

Año: 2018

Palabras claves: Intraseasonal tropical variability, El Niño, Decadal modulation

Referencia APA: Gushchina, D., & Dewitte, B. (2018). Decadal modulation of the relationship between intraseasonal tropical variability and ENSO. Climate Dynamics. doi: 10.1007/s00382-018-4235-y

Seasonal variability of the Ekman transport and pumping in the upwelling system off central-northern Chile (∼  30° S) based on a high-resolution atmospheric regional model

Autores:

Bravo, L., Ramos, M., Astudillo, O., Dewitte, B., & Goubanova, K.

Resumen:

Two physical mechanisms can contribute to coastal upwelling in eastern boundary current systems: offshore Ekman transport due to the predominant alongshore wind stress and Ekman pumping due to the cyclonic wind stress curl, mainly caused by the abrupt decrease in wind stress (drop-off) in a cross-shore band of 100 km. This wind drop-off is thought to be an ubiquitous feature in coastal upwelling systems and to regulate the relative contribution of both mechanisms. It has been poorly studied along the central-northern Chile region because of the lack in wind measurements along the shoreline and of the relatively low resolution of the available atmospheric reanalysis. Here, the seasonal variability in Ekman transport, Ekman pumping and their relative contribution to total upwelling along the central-northern Chile region (∼  30° S) is evaluated from a high-resolution atmospheric model simulation. As a first step, the simulation is validated from satellite observations, which indicates a realistic representation of the spatial and temporal variability of the wind along the coast by the model. The model outputs are then used to document the fine-scale structures in the wind stress and wind curl in relation to the topographic features along the coast (headlands and embayments). Both wind stress and wind curl had a clear seasonal variability with annual and semiannual components. Alongshore wind stress maximum peak occurred in spring, second increase was in fall and minimum in winter. When a threshold of −3  ×  10−5 s−1 for the across-shore gradient of alongshore wind was considered to define the region from which the winds decrease toward the coast, the wind drop-off length scale varied between 8 and 45 km. The relative contribution of the coastal divergence and Ekman pumping to the vertical transport along the coast, considering the estimated wind drop-off length, indicated meridional alternation between both mechanisms, modulated by orography and the intricate coastline. Roughly, coastal divergence predominated in areas with low orography and headlands. Ekman pumping was higher in regions with high orography and the presence of embayments along the coast. In the study region, the vertical transport induced by coastal divergence and Ekman pumping represented 60 and 40 % of the total upwelling transport, respectively. The potential role of Ekman pumping on the spatial structure of sea surface temperature is also discussed.

Año: 2016

Palabras claves:

Referencia APA: Bravo, L., Ramos, M., Astudillo, O., Dewitte, B., & Goubanova, K. (2016). Seasonal variability of the Ekman transport and pumping in the upwelling system off central-northern Chile (∼  30° S) based on a high-resolution atmospheric regional model (WRF). Ocean Science, 12(5), 1049-1065. http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/os-12-1049-2016

ENSO Atmospheric Teleconnections and Their Response to Greenhouse Gas Forcing

Autores:

Yeh, S., Cai, W., Min, S., McPhaden, M., Dommenget, D., & Dewitte, B., Collins, M., Ashok, K., Soon‐Il, A., Bo‐Young, Y., Jong‐Seong, K.

Resumen:

El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the most prominent year‐to‐year climate fluctuation on Earth, alternating between anomalously warm (El Niño) and cold (La Niña) sea surface temperature (SST) conditions in the tropical Pacific. ENSO exerts its impacts on remote regions of the globe through atmospheric teleconnections, affecting extreme weather events worldwide. However, these teleconnections are inherently nonlinear and sensitive to ENSO SST anomaly patterns and amplitudes. In addition, teleconnections are modulated by variability in the oceanic and atmopsheric mean state outside the tropics and by land and sea ice extent. The character of ENSO as well as the ocean mean state have changed since the 1990s, which might be due to either natural variability or anthropogenic forcing, or their combined influences. This has resulted in changes in ENSO atmospheric teleconnections in terms of precipitation and temperature in various parts of the globe. In addition, changes in ENSO teleconnection patterns have affected their predictability and the statistics of extreme events. However, the short observational record does not allow us to clearly distinguish which changes are robust and which are not. Climate models suggest that ENSO teleconnections will change because the mean atmospheric circulation will change due to anthropogenic forcing in the 21st century, which is independent of whether ENSO properties change or not. However, future ENSO teleconnection changes do not currently show strong intermodel agreement from region to region, highlighting the importance of identifying factors that affect uncertainty in future model projections.

Año: 2018

Palabras claves: ENSO, Ocean mean state, Atmospheric teleconnections, Extreme event, Anthropogenic forcing, Climate models

Referencia APA: Yeh, S., Cai, W., Min, S., McPhaden, M., Dommenget, D., Dewitte, B., Collins, M., Ashok, K., Soon‐Il, A., Bo‐Young, Y., Jong‐Seong, K. (2018). ENSO Atmospheric Teleconnections and Their Response to Greenhouse Gas Forcing. Reviews Of Geophysics. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2017rg000568

From whaling to whale watching: Identifying fin whale critical foraging habitats off the Chilean coast

Autores:

Sepúlveda, M., Pérez-Álvarez, M., Santos-Carvallo, M., Pavez, G., Olavarría, C., Moraga, R., & Zerbini, A.

Resumen:

1. Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) have been documented along the coast of Chile since the early 20th century; however, information on their ecology and movement patterns remains poorly known.

2. In the spring of 2015, six implantable satellite tags were deployed on fin whales around the marine reserves of Isla Chañaral and Islas Choros‐Damas (approximately 29°S) to evaluate their movements and habitat use off the coast of Chile. A switching state–space model was used to estimate the predicted track of the whales as well as behavioural modes classified as ‘transiting’ and ‘area‐restricted search’ (ARS).

3. Whales were tracked for periods ranging between 4 and 162 days (mean = 68 ± 52 days), covering an average distance of 3225.7 ± 2871.6 km. Five of the six whales remained at middle latitudes for prolonged periods of time, moving in a north–south pattern near the coast, and spending most of their time in ARS behaviour (72.5% of the locations). Only one individual showed a clear southbound migratory behaviour, and remained in transit behaviour for most of the period it was followed.

4. These results suggest that some of the fin whales that are observed in Chile do follow a migration to high latitudes, whereas others remained at middle latitudes, probably using critical habitats as feeding grounds during the summer. This information not only contributes new information on the behaviour and foraging patterns of this species, but is also of particular interest to promote the growing whale‐watching activity, and also to better inform conservation and management efforts for this species in Chile.

Año: 2018

Palabras claves: Coastal, Endangered species, Feeding, Mammals, Marine reserve, Ocean, Recreation, Satellite telemetry

Referencia APA: Sepúlveda, M., Pérez-Álvarez, M., Santos-Carvallo, M., Pavez, G., Olavarría, C., Moraga, R., & Zerbini, A. (2018). From whaling to whale watching: Identifying fin whale critical foraging habitats off the Chilean coast. Aquatic Conservation: Marine And Freshwater Ecosystems. doi: 10.1002/aqc.2899

Geophysical and geochemical constraints on the age and paleoclimate implications of Holocene lacustrine cores from the Andes of central Chile

Autores:

Tiner, R., Negrini, R., Antinao, J., McDonald, E., & Maldonado, A.

Resumen:

A Holocene paleoclimate record was constructed using two lacustrine cores from the high‐elevation Chilean Andes at ∼30°S latitude. Coarser and more poorly sorted grain‐size distributions and higher C/N ratios were interpreted as evidence for increased storm activity. Wet conditions prevailed from ∼10.8 to 9.5k cal a BP, then transitioned to dry conditions from ∼9.5 to 5.7k cal a BP interrupted by stormy conditions from ∼8.3 to 7.6k cal a BP. Wet conditions returned from ∼5.7k cal a BP to the present, interrupted by aridity from ∼4.1 to 2.2k cal a BP. This paleoclimate record is consistent with others from the region. The wet periods were probably caused by the influence of the Southern Westerlies, while dry conditions resulted from the influence of the Southeast Pacific Anticyclone. The increased storminess from ∼8.3 to 7.7k cal a BP may have been sourced from latitudinal shifts in the Intertropical Convergence Zone and subsequent weakening of the Westerlies, allowing the incursion of convective storms from east of the Andes. This sequence of events is consistent with synoptic conditions during modern easterly sourced storm activity. It is also consistent with modeling studies of the effect on the Southern Hemisphere of the rapid cooling of the North Atlantic Ocean during the 8.2‐ka event.

Año:

Palabras claves: Elqui, Holocene, Lakes, Paleoclimate, Paleomagnetic secular variation

Referencia APA: Tiner, R., Negrini, R., Antinao, J., McDonald, E., & Maldonado, A. (2018). Geophysical and geochemical constraints on the age and paleoclimate implications of Holocene lacustrine cores from the Andes of central Chile. Journal Of Quaternary Science, 33(2), 150-165. doi: 10.1002/jqs.3012

New insights into the use of stable water isotopes at the northern Antarctic Peninsula as a tool for regional climate studies

Autores:

Fernandoy, F., Tetzner, D., Meyer, H., Gacitúa, G., Hoffmann, K., Falk, U., Lambert, F., & MacDonell, S.

Resumen:

Due to recent atmospheric and oceanic warming, the Antarctic Peninsula is one of the most challenging regions of Antarctica to understand in terms of both local- and regional-scale climate signals. Steep topography and a lack of long-term and in situ meteorological observations complicate the extrapolation of existing climate models to the subregional scale. Therefore, new techniques must be developed to better understand processes operating in the region. Isotope signals are traditionally related mainly to atmospheric conditions, but a detailed analysis of individual components can give new insight into oceanic and atmospheric processes. This paper aims to use new isotopic records collected from snow and firn cores in conjunction with existing meteorological and oceanic datasets to determine changes at the climatic scale in the northern extent of the Antarctic Peninsula. In particular, a discernible effect of sea ice cover on local temperatures and the expression of climatic modes, especially the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), is demonstrated. In years with a large sea ice extension in winter (negative SAM anomaly), an inversion layer in the lower troposphere develops at the coastal zone. Therefore, an isotope–temperature relationship (δ–T ) valid for all periods cannot be obtained, and instead the δ–T depends on the seasonal variability of oceanic conditions. Comparatively, transitional seasons (autumn and spring) have a consistent isotope–temperature gradient of +0.69 ‰ ◦C−1. As shown by firn core analysis, the near-surface temperature in the northern-most portion of the Antarctic Peninsula shows a decreasing trend (−0.33 ◦C year−1) between 2008 and 2014. In addition, the deuterium excess (dexcess) is demonstrated to be a reliable indicator of seasonal oceanic conditions, and therefore suitable to improve a firn age model based on seasonal dexcess variability. The annual accumulation rate in this region is highly variable, ranging between 1060 and 2470 kgm−2 year−1 from 2008 to 2014. The combination of isotopic and meteorological data in areas where data exist is key to reconstruct climatic conditions with a high temporal resolution in polar regions where no direct observations exist.

Año: 2018

Palabras claves:

Referencia APA: Fernandoy, F., Tetzner, D., Meyer, H., Gacitúa, G., Hoffmann, K., Falk, U., Lambert, F., & MacDonell, S. .(2018). New insights into the use of stable water isotopes at the northern Antarctic Peninsula as a tool for regional climate studies. The Cryosphere, 12(3), 1069-1090. doi: 10.5194/tc-12-1069-2018

Alpha-helical domain from IL-8 of salmonids: Mechanism of action and identification of a novel antimicrobial function

Autores:

Santana, P., Salinas, N., Álvarez, C., Mercado, L., & Guzmán, F.

Resumen:

In this work, the potential antimicrobial role and mechanism of action of α-helix domain of trout and salmon IL-8 against Eschericia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. By an in silico analysis of the primary structure of IL-8 from Oncorhynchus mykiss and salmo salar, it was evidenced that γ-core motif was present, as in the vast majority of kinocidins. The α-helix domain of IL-8 (αIL-8) was synthesized by solid phase peptide synthesis and showed a tendency to form an α-helix conformation, as revealed by circular dichroism. Additionally, it was demonstrated that αIL-8 from both species showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Membrane permeabilization and co-localization assay, as well as scanning electron microscopy, showed that these peptides were accumulated on the cell surface and in the cytoplasm, suggesting that they were capable of permeabilizing and disrupt the bacterial membranes and interact with cytoplasmic components. Our results represent the first analysis on the antimicrobial function of IL-8-derived peptide from salmonids.

Año: 2018

Palabras claves: Interleukin-8, Synthetic peptide, Antimicrobial activity, Salmonids

Referencia APA: Santana, P., Salinas, N., Álvarez, C., Mercado, L., & Guzmán, F. (2018). Alpha-helical domain from IL-8 of salmonids: Mechanism of action and identification of a novel antimicrobial function. Biochemical And Biophysical Research Communications, 498(4), 803-809. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2018.03.061

Understanding the antimicrobial properties/activity of an 11-residue Lys homopeptide by alanine and proline scan

Autores:

Carvajal-Rondanelli, P., Aróstica, M., Álvarez, C., Ojeda, C., Albericio, F., Aguilar, L.F., Marshall, S.H., Guzmán, F.

Resumen:

Previous work demonstrated that lysine homopeptides adopt a polyproline II (PPII) structure. Lysine homopeptides with odd number of residues, especially with 11 residues (K11), were capable of inhibiting the growth of a broader spectrum of bacteria than those with an even number. Confocal studies also determined that K11 was able to localize exclusively in the bacterial membrane, leading to cell death. In this work, the mechanism of action of this peptide was further analyzed focused on examining the structural changes in bacterial membrane induced by K11, and in K11 itself when interacting with bacterial membrane lipids. Moreover, alanine and proline scans were performed for K11 to identify relevant positions in structure conformation and antibacterial activity. To do so, circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) was conducted in saline phosphate buffer (PBS) and in lipidic vesicles, using large unilamellar vesicles (LUV), composed of 2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DMPG) or bacterial membrane lipid. Antimicrobial activity of K11 and their analogs was evaluated in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 exposed to the Lys homopeptide at MIC concentration showed blisters and bubbles formed on the bacterial surface, suggesting that K11 exerts its action by destabilizing the bacterial membrane. CD analysis revealed a remarkably enhanced PPII structure of K11 when replacing some of its central residues by proline in PBS. However, when such peptide analogs were confronted with either DMPG-LUV or membrane lipid extract-LUV, the tendency to form PPII structure was severely weakened. On the contrary, K11 peptide showed a remarkably enhanced PPII structure in the presence of DMPG-LUV. Antibacterial tests revealed that K11 was able to inhibit all tested bacteria with an MIC value of 5 µM, while proline and alanine analogs have a reduced activity on Listeria monocytogenes. Besides, the activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus was affected in most of the alanine-substituted analogs. However, lysine substitutions by alanine or proline at position 7 did not alter the activity against all tested bacterial strains, suggesting that this position can be screened to find a substitute amino acid yielding a peptide with increased antibacterial activity. These results also indicate that the PPII secondary structure of K11 is stabilized by the interaction of the peptide with negatively charged phospholipids in the bacterial membrane, though not being the sole determinant for its antimicrobial activity.

Año: 2018

Palabras claves: Lysine homopeptide-antimicrobial activity-Ala, Pro scanning-membrane rupture

Referencia APA: Carvajal-Rondanelli, P., Aróstica, M., Álvarez, C., Ojeda, C., Albericio, F., Aguilar, L.F., Marshall, S.H., Guzmán, F. (2018). Understanding the antimicrobial properties/activity of an 11-residue Lys homopeptide by alanine and proline scan. Amino Acids, 50(5), 557-568. doi: 10.1007/s00726-018-2542-6