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Cross-cultural invariances in the architecture of shame

Autores:

Sznycer, D., Xygalatas, D., Agey, E., Alami, S., An, X., & Ananyeva, K., Atkinson, Q.D., Broitman, B.R., Conte, T.J., Flores, C., Fukushima, S., Hitokoto, H., Kharitonov, A.N., Onyishi, C.N., Onyishi, I.E., Romero, P.P., Schrock, J.M., Snodgrass, J., Sugiyama, L.S., Takemura, K., Townsend, C., Zhuang, , J-Y., Athena Aktipis, C., Cronk, L., Cosmides, L., Tooby, J.

Resumen:

Human foragers are obligately group-living, and their high dependence on mutual aid is believed to have characterized our species’ social evolution. It was therefore a central adaptive problem for our ancestors to avoid damaging the willingness of other group members to render them assistance. Cognitively, this requires a predictive map of the degree to which others would devalue the individual based on each of various possible acts. With such a map, an individual can avoid socially costly behaviors by anticipating how much audience devaluation a potential action (e.g., stealing) would cause and weigh this against the action’s direct payoff (e.g., acquiring). The shame system manifests all of the functional properties required to solve this adaptive problem, with the aversive intensity of shame encoding the social cost. Previous data from three Western(ized) societies indicated that the shame evoked when the individual anticipates committing various acts closely tracks the magnitude of devaluation expressed by audiences in response to those acts. Here we report data supporting the broader claim that shame is a basic part of human biology. We conducted an experiment among 899 participants in 15 small-scale communities scattered around the world. Despite widely varying languages, cultures, and subsistence modes, shame in each community closely tracked the devaluation of local audiences (mean r = +0.84). The fact that the same pattern is encountered in such mutually remote communities suggests that shame’s match to audience devaluation is a design feature crafted by selection and not a product of cultural contact or convergent cultural evolution.

Año: 2018

Palabras claves: emotion, cognition, culture, cooperation, evolutionary psychology.

Referencia APA: Sznycer, D., Xygalatas, D., Agey, E., Alami, S., An, X., & Ananyeva, K., Atkinson, Q.D., Broitman, B.R., Conte, T.J., Flores, C., Fukushima, S., Hitokoto, H., Kharitonov, A.N., Onyishi, C.N., Onyishi, I.E., Romero, P.P., Schrock, J.M., Snodgrass, J., Sugiyama, L.S., Takemura, K., Townsend, C., Zhuang, , J-Y., Athena Aktipis, C., Cronk, L., Cosmides, L., Tooby, J. (2018). Cross-cultural invariances in the architecture of shame. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences, 115(39), 9702-9707. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1805016115

Pedogenic and microbial interrelations to regional climate and local topography: New insights from a climate gradient (arid to humid) along the Coastal Cordillera of Chile

Autores:

Bernhard, N., Moskwa, L., Schmidt, K., Oeser, R., Aburto, F., & Bader, M., Baumann, K., von Blanckenburg, F., Boy, J., van den Brink, L., Brucker, E., Büdel, B., Canessa, R., Dippold, M.A., Ehlers, T.A., Fuentes, J.P., Godoy, R., Jung, P., Karsten, U., Köster, M., Kuzyakov, Y., Leinweber, P., Neidhardt, H., Matus, F., Mueller, C.W., Oelmann, Y., Oses, R., Osses, P., Paulino, L., Samolov, E., Schaller, M., Schmid, M., Spielvogel, S., Spohn, M., Stock, S., Stroncik, N., Tielbörger, K., Übernickel, K., Scholten, T., Seguel, O., Wagner, D., Kühn, P.

Resumen:

The effects of climate and topography on soil physico-chemical and microbial parameters were studied along an extensive latitudinal climate gradient in the Coastal Cordillera of Chile (26°–38°S). The study sites encompass arid (Pan de Azúcar), semiarid (Santa Gracia), mediterranean (La Campana) and humid (Nahuelbuta) climates and vegetation, ranging from arid desert, dominated by biological soil crusts (biocrusts), semiarid shrubland and mediterranean sclerophyllous forest, where biocrusts are present but do have a seasonal pattern to temperate-mixed forest, where biocrusts only occur as an early pioneering development stage after disturbance. All soils originate from granitic parent materials and show very strong differences in pedogenesis intensity and soil depth.

Most of the investigated physical, chemical and microbiological soil properties showed distinct trends along the climate gradient. Further, abrupt changes between the arid northernmost study site and the other semi-arid to humid sites can be shown, which indicate non-linearity and thresholds along the climate gradient. Clay and total organic carbon contents (TOC) as well as Ah horizons and solum depths increased from arid to humid climates, whereas bulk density (BD), pH values and base saturation (BS) decreased. These properties demonstrate the accumulation of organic matter, clay formation and element leaching as key-pedogenic processes with increasing humidity. However, the soils in the northern arid climate do not follow this overall latitudinal trend, because texture and BD are largely controlled by aeolian input of dust and sea salts spray followed by the formation of secondary evaporate minerals. Total soil DNA concentrations and TOC increased from arid to humid sites, while areal coverage by biocrusts exhibited an opposite trend. Relative bacterial and archaeal abundances were lower in the arid site, but for the other sites the local variability exceeds the variability along the climate gradient. Differences in soil properties between topographic positions were most pronounced at the study sites with the mediterranean and humid climate, whereas microbial abundances were independent on topography across all study sites. In general, the regional climate is the strongest controlling factor for pedogenesis and microbial parameters in soils developed from the same parent material. Topographic position along individual slopes of limited length augmented this effect only under humid conditions, where water erosion likely relocated particles and elements downward. The change from alkaline to neutral soil pH between the arid and the semi-arid site coincided with qualitative differences in soil formation as well as microbial habitats. This also reflects non-linear relationships of pedogenic and microbial processes in soils depending on climate with a sharp threshold between arid and semi-arid conditions. Therefore, the soils on the transition between arid and semi-arid conditions are especially sensitive and may be well used as indicators of long and medium-term climate changes. Concluding, the unique latitudinal precipitation gradient in the Coastal Cordillera of Chile is predestined to investigate the effects of the main soil forming factor – climate – on pedogenic processes.

Año: 2018

Palabras claves: Climate, Topography, Soil texture, Total organic carbon, Carbon isotope ratio (δ13CTOC), Microbial abundance.

Referencia APA: Bernhard, N., Moskwa, L., Schmidt, K., Oeser, R., Aburto, F., & Bader, M., Baumann, K., von Blanckenburg, F., Boy, J., van den Brink, L., Brucker, E., Büdel, B., Canessa, R., Dippold, M.A., Ehlers, T.A., Fuentes, J.P., Godoy, R., Jung, P., Karsten, U., Köster, M., Kuzyakov, Y., Leinweber, P., Neidhardt, H., Matus, F., Mueller, C.W., Oelmann, Y., Oses, R., Osses, P., Paulino, L., Samolov, E., Schaller, M., Schmid, M., Spielvogel, S., Spohn, M., Stock, S., Stroncik, N., Tielbörger, K., Übernickel, K., Scholten, T., Seguel, O., Wagner, D., Kühn, P. (2018). Pedogenic and microbial interrelations to regional climate and local topography: New insights from a climate gradient (arid to humid) along the Coastal Cordillera of Chile. CATENA, 170, 335-355. doi: 10.1016/j.catena.2018.06.018

Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Autores:

Karp, D., Chaplin-Kramer, R., Meehan, T., Martin, E., DeClerck, F., & Grab, H., Gratton C., Hunt, L., Larsen, A.E., Martínez-Salinas, A., O’Rourke, M.E., Rusch, A., Poveda, K., Jonsson, M., Rosenheim, J.A., Schellhorn, N.A., Tscharntke, T., Wratten, S.D., Zhang, W., Iverson, A.L., Adler, L.S., Albrecht, M., Alignier, A., Angelella, G.M., Anjum, M.Z., Avelino, J., Batáry, P., Baveco, J.M., Bianchi, F.J.J.A., Birkhofer, K., Bohnenblust, E.W., Bommarco, R., Brewer, M.J., Caballero-López, B., Carrière, Y., Carvalheiro, L.G., Cayuela, L., Centrella, M., Ćetković, A., Henri, D.C., Chabert, A., Costamagna, A.C., De la Mora, A., de Kraker, J., Desneux, N., Diehl, E., Diekötter, T., Dormann, C.F., Eckberg, J.O., Entling, M.H., Fiedler, D., Franck, P., Frank van Veen, F.J., Frank, T., Gagic, V., Garratt, M.P.D., Getachew, A., Gonthier, D.J., Goodell, P.B., Graziosi, I., Groves, R.L., Gurr, G.M., Hajian-Forooshani, Z., Heimpel, G.E., Herrmann, J.D., Huseth, A.S., Inclán, D.J., Ingrao, A.J., Iv, P., Jacot, K., Johnson, G.A., Jones, L., Kaiser, M., Kaser, J.M., Keasar, T., Kim, T.N., Kishinevsky, M., Landis, D.A., Lavandero, B., Lavigne, C., Le Ralec, A., Lemessa, D., Letourneau, D.K., Liere, H., Lu, Y., Lubin, Y., Luttermoser, T., Maas, B., Mace, K., Madeira, F., Mader, V., Cortesero, A.M., Marini, L., Martinez, E., Martinson, H.M., Menozzi, P., Mitchell, M.G.E., Miyashita, T., Molina, G.A.R., Molina-Montenegro, M.A., O’Neal, M.E., Opatovsky, I., Ortiz-Martinez, S., Nash, M., Östman, Ö., Ouin, A., Pak, D., Paredes, D., Parsa, S., Parry, H., Perez-Alvarez, R., Perović, D.J., Peterson, J.A., Petit, S., Philpott, S.M., Plantegenest, M., Plećaš, M., Pluess, T., Pons, X., Potts, S.G., Pywell, R.F., Ragsdale, D.W., Rand, T.A., Raymond, L., Ricci, B., Sargent, C., Sarthou, J-P., Saulais, J., Schäckermann, J., Schmidt, N.P., Schneider, G., Schüepp, C., Sivakoff, F.S., Smith, H.G., Whitney, K.S., Stutz, S., Szendrei, Z., Takada, M.B., Taki, H., Tamburini, G., Thomson, L.J., Tricault, Y., Tsafack, N., Tschumi, M., Valantin-Morison, M., Van Trinh, M., van der Werf, W., Vierling, K.T., Werling, B.P., Wickens, J.B., Wickens, V.J., Woodcock, B.A., Wyckhuys, k., Xiao,, H., Yasuda, M., Yoshioka, A., Zou, Y.

Resumen:

The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are measured. Here, we use a pest-control database encompassing 132 studies and 6,759 sites worldwide to model natural enemy and pest abundances, predation rates, and crop damage as a function of landscape composition. Our results showed that although landscape composition explained significant variation within studies, pest and enemy abundances, predation rates, crop damage, and yields each exhibited different responses across studies, sometimes increasing and sometimes decreasing in landscapes with more noncrop habitat but overall showing no consistent trend. Thus, models that used landscape-composition variables to predict pest-control dynamics demonstrated little potential to explain variation across studies, though prediction did improve when comparing studies with similar crop and landscape features. Overall, our work shows that surrounding noncrop habitat does not consistently improve pest management, meaning habitat conservation may bolster production in some systems and depress yields in others. Future efforts to develop tools that inform farmers when habitat conservation truly represents a win–win would benefit from increased understanding of how landscape effects are modulated by local farm management and the biology of pests and their enemies.

Año: 2018

Palabras claves: agroecology, biodiversity, biological control, ecosystem services, natural enemies

Referencia APA: Karp, D., Chaplin-Kramer, R., Meehan, T., Martin, E., DeClerck, F., & Grab, H., Gratton C., Hunt, L., Larsen, A.E., Martínez-Salinas, A., O’Rourke, M.E., Rusch, A., Poveda, K., Jonsson, M., Rosenheim, J.A., Schellhorn, N.A., Tscharntke, T., Wratten, S.D., Zhang, W., Iverson, A.L., Adler, L.S., Albrecht, M., Alignier, A., Angelella, G.M., Anjum, M.Z., Avelino, J., Batáry, P., Baveco, J.M., Bianchi, F.J.J.A., Birkhofer, K., Bohnenblust, E.W., Bommarco, R., Brewer, M.J., Caballero-López, B., Carrière, Y., Carvalheiro, L.G., Cayuela, L., Centrella, M., Ćetković, A., Henri, D.C., Chabert, A., Costamagna, A.C., De la Mora, A., de Kraker, J., Desneux, N., Diehl, E., Diekötter, T., Dormann, C.F., Eckberg, J.O., Entling, M.H., Fiedler, D., Franck, P., Frank van Veen, F.J., Frank, T., Gagic, V., Garratt, M.P.D., Getachew, A., Gonthier, D.J., Goodell, P.B., Graziosi, I., Groves, R.L., Gurr, G.M., Hajian-Forooshani, Z., Heimpel, G.E., Herrmann, J.D., Huseth, A.S., Inclán, D.J., Ingrao, A.J., Iv, P., Jacot, K., Johnson, G.A., Jones, L., Kaiser, M., Kaser, J.M., Keasar, T., Kim, T.N., Kishinevsky, M., Landis, D.A., Lavandero, B., Lavigne, C., Le Ralec, A., Lemessa, D., Letourneau, D.K., Liere, H., Lu, Y., Lubin, Y., Luttermoser, T., Maas, B., Mace, K., Madeira, F., Mader, V., Cortesero, A.M., Marini, L., Martinez, E., Martinson, H.M., Menozzi, P., Mitchell, M.G.E., Miyashita, T., Molina, G.A.R., Molina-Montenegro, M.A., O’Neal, M.E., Opatovsky, I., Ortiz-Martinez, S., Nash, M., Östman, Ö., Ouin, A., Pak, D., Paredes, D., Parsa, S., Parry, H., Perez-Alvarez, R., Perović, D.J., Peterson, J.A., Petit, S., Philpott, S.M., Plantegenest, M., Plećaš, M., Pluess, T., Pons, X., Potts, S.G., Pywell, R.F., Ragsdale, D.W., Rand, T.A., Raymond, L., Ricci, B., Sargent, C., Sarthou, J-P., Saulais, J., Schäckermann, J., Schmidt, N.P., Schneider, G., Schüepp, C., Sivakoff, F.S., Smith, H.G., Whitney, K.S., Stutz, S., Szendrei, Z., Takada, M.B., Taki, H., Tamburini, G., Thomson, L.J., Tricault, Y., Tsafack, N., Tschumi, M., Valantin-Morison, M., Van Trinh, M., van der Werf, W., Vierling, K.T., Werling, B.P., Wickens, J.B., Wickens, V.J., Woodcock, B.A., Wyckhuys, k., Xiao,, H., Yasuda, M., Yoshioka, A., Zou, Y. (2018). Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences, 115(33), E7863-E7870. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1800042115

Chemistry and microbiology of the Critical Zone along a steep climate and vegetation gradient in the Chilean Coastal Cordillera

Autores:

Oeser, R., Stroncik, N., Moskwa, L., Bernhard, N., Schaller, M., Canessa, R., van den Brink, L., Köster, M., Brucker, E., Stock, S., Fuentes, J., Godoy, R., Matus, F., Oses Pedraza, R., Osses McIntyre, P., Paulino, L., Seguel, O., Bader, M., Boy, J., Dippold, M., Ehlers, T., Kühn, P., Kuzyakov, Y., Leinweber, P., Scholten, T., Spielvogel, S., Spohn, M., Übernickel, K., Tielbörger, K., Wagner, D. and von Blanckenburg, F.

Resumen:

The Chilean Coastal Cordillera features a spectacular climate and vegetation gradient, ranging from arid and unvegetated areas in the north to humid and forested areas in the south. The EarthShape project (“Earth Surface Shaping by Biota”) uses this natural gradient to investigate how climate and biological processes shape the Earth's surface. We explored the Critical Zone, the Earth's uppermost layer, in four key sites located in desert, semidesert, Mediterranean, and temperate climate zones of the Coastal Cordillera, with the focus on weathering of granitic rock. Here, we present first results from 16 approximately 2 m-deep regolith profiles to document: (1) architecture of weathering zone; (2) degree and rate of rock weathering, thus the release of mineral-derived nutrients to the terrestrial ecosystems; (3) denudation rates; and (4) microbial abundances of bacteria and archaea in the saprolite.

From north to south, denudation rates from cosmogenic nuclides are ~10 t km−2 yr−1 at the arid Pan de Azúcar site, ~20 t km−2 yr−1 at the semi-arid site of Santa Gracia, ~60 t km−2 yr−1 at the Mediterranean climate site of La Campana, and ~30 t km−2 yr−1 at the humid site of Nahuelbuta. A and B horizons increase in thickness and elemental depletion or enrichment increases from north (~26°S) to south (~38°S) in these horizons. Differences in the degree of chemical weathering, quantified by the chemical depletion fraction (CDF), are significant only between the arid and sparsely vegetated site and the other three sites. Differences in the CDF between the sites, and elemental depletion within the sites are sometimes smaller than the variations induced by the bedrock heterogeneity. Microbial abundances (bacteria and archaea) in saprolite substantially increase from the arid to the semi-arid sites.

Año: 2018

Palabras claves: Weathering, Denudation, Microbial abundance, Climate, Chile.

Referencia APA: Oeser, R., Stroncik, N., Moskwa, L., Bernhard, N., Schaller, M., Canessa, R., van den Brink, L., Köster, M., Brucker, E., Stock, S., Fuentes, J., Godoy, R., Matus, F., Oses Pedraza, R., Osses McIntyre, P., Paulino, L., Seguel, O., Bader, M., Boy, J., Dippold, M., Ehlers, T., Kühn, P., Kuzyakov, Y., Leinweber, P., Scholten, T., Spielvogel, S., Spohn, M., Übernickel, K., Tielbörger, K., Wagner, D. and von Blanckenburg, F. (2018). Chemistry and microbiology of the Critical Zone along a steep climate and vegetation gradient in the Chilean Coastal Cordillera. CATENA, 170, pp.183-203.

Hormonal and physiological changes driven by fungal endophytes increase Antarctic plant performance under UV-B radiation

Autores:

Ramos, P., Rivas, N., Pollmann, S., Casati, P. and Molina-Montenegro, M.

Resumen:

Antarctic environments are amongst the most stressful habitats for life on Earth, with high intensities of solar UV-B radiation reaching the land surface. In this study, we evaluated how the photochemical efficiency, cell damage and reproductive biomass of Antarctic pearlwort (Colobanthus quitensis) were affected by different intensities of UV-B radiation in the absence and presence of fungal endophytes. In addition, we evaluated the hormonal content of plants at different UV-B radiation intensities and how hormonal content was affected by endophytes. Overall, plants exposed to UV-B radiation showed higher numbers of flowers, higher total biomass and lower lipid peroxidation in the presence of endophytes compared with plants without endophytes. Photochemical efficiency was unaffected. Fungal endophytes affected the content of salicylic acid, jasmonate, indole-3-acetate and abscisic acid in shoot tissue of plants exposed to UV-B radiation. These results suggest that endophytes could modulate the hormonal content of C. quitensis to improve its ecophysiological performance under high UV-B radiation.

Año: 2018

Palabras claves: Antarctica, Climate change, Colobanthus quitensis, Ecophysiological performance, Fungal endophytes

Referencia APA: Ramos, P., Rivas, N., Pollmann, S., Casati, P. and Molina-Montenegro, M. (2018). Hormonal and physiological changes driven by fungal endophytes increase Antarctic plant performance under UV-B radiation. Fungal Ecology, 34, pp.76-82.

Scales of predator detection behavior and escape in Fissurella limbata: A field and laboratory assessment

Autores:

Manzur, T., Gonzalez-Mendez, A. and Broitman, B.

Resumen:

The consumptive effects of predators are widely acknowledged, but predation can also impact prey populations through non‐consumptive effects (NCEs) such as costly antipredator behavioral responses. The magnitude of antipredator behavioral responses by prey is determined by an assessment of risk using sensory cues, which in turn is modulated by the environmental context. We studied the detection behavior and escape response of the keyhole limpet Fissurella limbata from the predatory sea star Heliaster helianthus. Through laboratory and field experimental trials, we quantified the distance and time of predator detection behavior by the prey, and measured their active escape responses when elicited. We found that predator detection by the limpet was chiefly mediated by distance, with experimental individuals capable of detecting predator presence effectively up to distances of at least 50 cm in the field and 70 cm under laboratory conditions. Our results indicate that this prey species is able to evaluate the proximity of its predator and use it as an indication of predation risk; therefore, predator–prey distance appears to be a primary predictor of the magnitude of the antipredator response. Given the tight relationship between predator distance and prey movement and the important role herbivores can play, particularly in this ecosystem, we expect that NCEs will cascade to the patterns of abundance and composition of rocky shore communities through changes in prey foraging behavior under risk.

Año: 2018

Palabras claves: antipredator behavior, escape, non‐consumptive effects, predator detection behavior, predator–prey interactions, rocky inter‐tidal, spatial scale

Referencia APA: Manzur, T., Gonzalez-Mendez, A. and Broitman, B. (2018). Scales of predator detection behavior and escape in Fissurella limbata: A field and laboratory assessment. Marine Ecology, 39(2), p.e12492. https://doi.org/10.1111/maec.12492

Metagenomic exploration of soils microbial communities associated to Antarctic vascular plants

Autores:

Molina-Montenegro, M., Ballesteros, G., Castro-Nallar, E., Meneses, C., Torres-Díaz, C. and Gallardo-Cerda, J.

Resumen:

Antarctica is one of the most stressful ecosystems worldwide with few vascular plants,which are limited by abiotic conditions. Here, plants such as Deschampsia antarctica (Da)could generate more suitable micro-environmental conditions for the establishment ofother plants as Colobanthus quitensis (Cq). Although, plant-plant interaction is known todetermine the plant performance, little is known about how microorganisms mightmodulate the ability of plants to cope with stressful environmental conditions. Severalreports have focused on the possible ecological roles of microorganism with vascularplants, but if the rizospheric microorganisms can modulate the positive interactions amongvascular Antarctic plants has been seldom assessed. In this study, we compared therhizosphere microbiomes associated with Cq, either growing alone or associated with Da,using a shotgun metagenomic DNA sequencing approach and using eggNOG forcomparative and functional metagenomics. Overall, results show higher diversity oftaxonomic and functional groups in rhizospheric soil from Cq+Da than Cq. On the otherhand, functional annotation shows that microorganisms from rhizospheric soil from Cq+Dahave a significantly higher representation of genes associated to metabolic functionsrelated with environmental stress tolerance than Cq soils. Additional research is needed toexplore both the biological impact of these higher activities in terms of gene transfer onplant performance and in turn help to explain the still unsolved enigma about the strategydeployed by Cq to inhabit and cope with harsh conditions prevailing in Antarctic.

Año: 2018

Palabras claves:

Referencia APA: Molina-Montenegro, M., Ballesteros, G., Castro-Nallar, E., Meneses, C., Torres-Díaz, C. and Gallardo-Cerda, J. (2018). Metagenomic exploration of soils microbial communities associated to Antarctic vascular plants.

Temporal Variability of MODIS Phenological Indices in the Temperate Rainforest of Northern Patagonia

Autores:

Lara, C., Saldías, G., Paredes, A., Cazelles, B. and Broitman, B.

Resumen:

Western Patagonia harbors unique and sparsely studied terrestrial ecosystems that are threatened by land use changes and exposure to basin-scale climatic variability. We assessed the performance of two satellite vegetation indices derived from MODIS–Terra, EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), over the northern and southern sectors of the Chiloé Island System (CIS) to advance our understanding of vegetation dynamics in the region. Then we examined their time-varying relationships with two climatic indices indicative of tropical and extratropical influence, the ENSO (El Niño–Southern Oscillation) and the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) index, respectively. The 17-year time series showed that only EVI captured the seasonal pattern characteristic of temperate regions, with low (high) phenological activity during Autumn-Winter (Spring–Summer). NDVI saturated during the season of high productivity and failed to capture the seasonal cycle. Temporal patterns in productivity showed a weakened seasonal cycle during the past decade, particularly over the northern sector. We observed a non-stationary association between EVI and both climatic indices. Significant co-variation between EVI and the Niño–Southern Oscillation index in the annual band persisted from 2001 until 2008–2009; annual coherence with AAO prevailed from 2013 onwards and the 2009–2012 period was characterized by coherence between EVI and both climate indices over longer temporal scales. Our results suggest that the influence of large-scale climatic variability on local weather patterns drives phenological responses in the northern and southern regions of the CIS. The imprint of climatic variability on patterns of primary production across the CIS may be underpinned by spatial differences in the anthropogenic modification of this ecosystem, as the northern sector is strongly modified by forestry and agriculture. We highlight the need for field validation of satellite indices around areas of high biomass and high endemism, located in the southern sector of the island, in order to enhance the utility of satellite vegetation indices in the conservation and management of austral ecosystems.

Año: 2018

Palabras claves: MODIS; primary productivity; climatic variability; vegetation index; wavelet coherence

Referencia APA: Lara, C., Saldías, G., Paredes, A., Cazelles, B. and Broitman, B. (2018). Temporal Variability of MODIS Phenological Indices in the Temperate Rainforest of Northern Patagonia. Remote Sensing, 10(6), p.956. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060956

Asymmetric connectivity of the lobster Panulirus pascuensis in remote islands of the southern Pacific: importance for its management and conservation

Autores:

Meerhoff, E., Yannicelli, B., Dewitte, B., Díaz-Cabrera, E., Vega-Retter, C., Ramos, M., Bravo, L., Concha, E., Hernández-Vaca, F. and Véliz, D.

Resumen:

Understanding patterns of marine connectivity in oceanic islands is a fundamental element for conservation and management of fished species. In the present study, the level of connectivity of the endemic lobster Panulirus pascuensis Reed, 1954 from remote islands in the southern Pacific Ocean was estimated, focusing on the Motu Motiro Hiva Marine Park (MMH), considered here as a source of recruits to Easter Island. The connectivity of adult lobster populations between Eastern Island (EI) and Salas y Gómez Island (SG), in the center of MMH, was studied by quantifying the reciprocal migration rates using variability of microsatellite loci and a biophysical individual-based model of larval transport based on the outputs of a regional high-resolution oceanic model. Considering a system composed only of adult populations located in both islands, the genetic analysis showed that 3% of the adults from EI came from SG; however, only 0.02% in the opposite direction. Neglecting the effect of other islands (e.g., Pitcairn Island located at 2000 km west of EI), the self-recruitment was estimated at 97% in EI and 99.8% in SG. The results of the Lagrangian analysis of the oceanic model simulations are consistent with the concept of asymmetric connectivity, although there is appreciable variation in recruitment among years. Both genetic and oceanographic approaches revealed large variance in connectivity from SG to EI. The asymmetric connectivity from SG to EI emphasizes the importance of the MMH Marine Park for lobster conservation in SG, and that it also supports recruitment of P. pascuensis to EI.

Año: 2018

Palabras claves:

Referencia APA: Meerhoff, E., Yannicelli, B., Dewitte, B., Díaz-Cabrera, E., Vega-Retter, C., Ramos, M., Bravo, L., Concha, E., Hernández-Vaca, F. and Véliz, D. (2018). Asymmetric connectivity of the lobster Panulirus pascuensis in remote islands of the southern Pacific: importance for its management and conservation. Bulletin of Marine Science, 94(3), pp.753-774. https://doi.org/10.5343/bms.2017.1114

Phenotypic plasticity at the edge: Contrasting population‐level responses at the overlap of the leading and rear edges of the geographical distribution of two Scurria limpets

Autores:

Broitman, B., Aguilera, M., Lagos, N. and Lardies, M.

Resumen:

Aim
To examine the role of ocean temperature and chemistry as drivers of interpopulation differences in multiple phenotypic traits between rear and leading edge populations of two species of limpet.

Location
The coast of north‐central Chile, western South America.

Taxon
Mollusca, Gastropoda (Lottidae).

Methods
We used field and laboratory experiments to study the ecology and physiology of individuals from populations located at the overlap of the rear and leading edges of their respective geographical distributions. At the same time, we characterized local environmental regimes, measuring seawater physical and chemical properties.

Results
Towards the edge of their range, individuals from the leading edge species gradually reduced their shell length, metabolic rate and thermal response capacity, and increased carbonate content in their shells. Individuals of the rear edge species showed dissimilar responses between sites. Contrasting behavioural responses to experimental heating reconciled observations of an unintuitive higher maximal critical temperature and a smaller thermal safety margin for individuals of the rear edge populations. Physical–chemical characterization of seawater properties at the site located on the core of the upwelling centre showed extreme environmental conditions, with low oxygen concentration, high pCO2 and the episodic presence of corrosive seawater. These challenging environmental conditions were reflected in reduced growth for both species.

Main conclusions
We found different spatial patterns of phenotypic plasticity in two sister species around the leading and trailing edges of their distributions. Our results provide evidence that environmental conditions around large upwelling centres can maintain biogeographical breaks through metabolic constraints on the performance of calcifying organisms. Thus, local changes in seawater chemistry associated with coastal upwelling circulation emerge as a previously overlooked driver of marine range edges.

Año: 2018

Palabras claves: biogeographical break, calcification, limpet, Scurria, SE Pacific, thermal physiology, upwelling

Referencia APA: Broitman, B., Aguilera, M., Lagos, N. and Lardies, M. (2018). Phenotypic plasticity at the edge: Contrasting population‐level responses at the overlap of the leading and rear edges of the geographical distribution of two Scurria limpets. Journal of Biogeography, 45(10), pp.2314-2325. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13406

Isolation and characterization of Pb-solubilizing bacteria and their effects on Pb uptake by Brassica juncea: implications for microbe-assisted phytoremediation

Autores:

Yahaghi, Z., Shirvani, M., Nourbakhsh, F., de la Peña, T.C., Pueyo, J.J., Talebi, M.

Resumen:

The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize lead (Pb)-solubilizing bacteria from heavy metal-contaminated mine soils and to evaluate their inoculation effects on the growth and Pb absorption of Brassica juncea. The isolates were also evaluated for their plant growth-promoting characteristics as well as heavy metal and salt tolerance. A total of 171 Pb-tolerant isolates were identified, of which only 15 bacterial strains were able to produce clear haloes in solid medium containing PbO or PbCO3, indicating Pb solubilization. All of these 15 strains were also able to dissolve the Pb minerals in a liquid medium, which was accompanied by significant decreases in pH values of the medium. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the Pb-solubilizing strains belonged to genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Brevibacterium, and Staphylococcus. A majority of the Pb-solubilizing strains were able to produce indole acetic acid and siderophores to different extents. Two of the Pb-solubilizing isolates were able to solubilize inorganic phosphate as well. Some of the strains displayed tolerance to different heavy metals and to salt stress and were able to grow in a wide pH range. Inoculation with two selected Pb-solubilizing and plant growth-promoting strains, (i.e., Brevibacterium frigoritolerans YSP40 and Bacillus paralicheniformis YSP151) and their consortium enhanced the growth and Pb uptake of B. juncea plants grown in a metal-contaminated soil. The bacterial strains isolated in this study are promising candidates to develop novel microbe-assisted phytoremediation strategies for metal-contaminated soils.

Año: 2018

Palabras claves: Metal-solubilizing bacteria, PGPR, contaminated soils, lead, phytoremediation

Referencia APA: Yahaghi, Z., Shirvani, M., Nourbakhsh, F., de la Peña, T.C., Pueyo, J.J., Talebi, M. (2018). Isolation and characterization of Pb-solubilizing bacteria and their effects on Pb uptake by Brassica juncea: implications for microbe-assisted phytoremediation. https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1712.12038

Decoding the gene coexpression network underlying the ability of Gevuina avellana to live in diverse light conditions

Autores:

Ostria-Gallardo, E., Ranjan, A., Ichihashi, Y., Corcuera, L., & Sinha, N.

Resumen:

Gevuina avellana (Proteaceae) is a typical tree from the South American temperate rainforest. Although this species mostly regenerates in shaded understories, it exhibits an exceptional ecological breadth, being able to live under a wide range of light conditions. Here we studied the genetic basis that underlies physiological acclimation of the photosynthetic responses of G. avellana under contrasting light conditions.
We analyzed carbon assimilation and light energy used for photochemical processes in plants acclimated to contrasting light conditions. Also, we used a transcriptional profile of leaf primordia from G. avellana saplings growing under different light environments in their natural habitat, to identify the gene coexpression network underpinning photosynthetic performance and light‐related processes.
The photosynthetic parameters revealed optimal performance regardless of light conditions. Strikingly, the mechanism involved in dissipation of excess light energy showed no significant differences between high‐ and low‐light‐acclimated plants. The gene coexpression network defined a community structure consistent with the photochemical responses, including genes involved mainly in assembly and functioning of photosystems, photoprotection, and retrograde signaling.
This ecophysiological genomics approach improves our understanding of the intraspecific variability that allows G. avellana to have optimal photochemical and photoprotective mechanisms in the diverse light habitats it encounters in nature.

Año: 2018

Palabras claves: Gene coexpression network, Gevuina avellana, light acclimation, photosynthesis, temperate rainforest

Referencia APA: Ostria-Gallardo, E., Ranjan, A., Ichihashi, Y., Corcuera, L., & Sinha, N. (2018). Decoding the gene coexpression network underlying the ability of Gevuina avellana to live in diverse light conditions. New Phytologist, 220(1), 278-287. doi: 10.1111/nph.15278