Occurrence of the Non-Native Annual Bluegrass on the Antarctic Mainland and Its Negative Effects on Native Plants.
Molina-Montenegro, M., Carrasco-Urra, F., Rodrigo, C., Convey, P., Valladares, F., & Gianoli, E.
Few non-native species have colonized Antarctica, although increased human activity and accelerated climate change may increase their number, distributional range, and effects on native species on the continent. We searched 13 sites on the maritime Antarctic islands and 12 sites on the Antarctic Peninsula for annual bluegrass (Poa annua), a non-native flowering plant. We also evaluated the possible effects of competition between P. annua and 2 vascular plants native to Antarctica, Antarctic pearlwort (Colobanthus quitensis) and Antarctic hairgrass (Deschampsia antarctica). We grew the native species in experimental plots with and without annual bluegrass under conditions that mimicked the Antarctic environment. After 5 months, we measured photosynthetic performance on the basis of chlorophyll fluorescence and determined total biomass of both native species. We found individual specimens of annual bluegrass at 3 different sites on the Antarctic Peninsula during the 2007–2008 and 2009–2010 austral summers. The presence of bluegrass was associated with a statistically significant reduction in biomass of pearlwort and hairgrass, whereas the decrease in biomass of bluegrass was not statistically significant. Similarly, the presence of bluegrass significantly reduced the photosynthetic performance of the 2 native species. Sites where bluegrass occurred were close to major maritime routes of scientific expeditions and of tourist cruises to Antarctica. We believe that if current levels of human activity and regional warming persist, more non-native plant species are likely to colonize the Antarctic and may affect native species.
Palabras claves: Colobanthus quitensis;Deschampsia antarctica;hairgrass;non-native species;pearlwort;species competition;tourism;Poa annuaColobanthus quitensis;competencia de especies;Deschampsia antarctica;especie no nativa;Poa annua;turismo
Referencia APA: Molina-Montenegro, M., Carrasco-Urra, F., Rodrigo, C., Convey, P., Valladares, F., & Gianoli, E. (2012). Occurrence of the Non-Native Annual Bluegrass on the Antarctic Mainland and Its Negative Effects on Native Plants. Conservation Biology, 26(4), 717-723.
Linking Climatic Variability with Spatial Performance in Two Varieties of Quinoa Distributed in a Semi-Arid Zone.
Montecinos, S., Salinas, P., Oses, R., González-Silvestre, L., & Molina-Montenegro, M.
Different crop varieties can respond in different ways to the climatic variations at local scale. Thus, in order to maximize
the yield for a determined crop, the response of different varieties submitted to local climatic conditions should be
assessed. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the ecophysiological responses of two varieties of Quinoa (PRP
and BO78) submitted to different conditions of thermal amplitude. We performed two experiments in both greenhouse
and in 3 sites on experimental-field where were evaluated survival, photochemical efficiency, plant growth and dry
biomass in both varieties and compared them with the mean of the thermal conditions recorded during the last 16 years
in the Coquimbo Region, Chile. Overall, individuals of BO78 showed higher performance in the sites with lower thermal
amplitude than those of PRP. By contrast, in sites with higher thermal amplitude individuals of PRP showed better
survival, physiological performance and biomass and therefore higher performance. Our results suggest that while
BO78 showed an ecotypic strategy, the PRP showed a plastic strategy to maintain higher performance in sites with
moderate and high climatic variability. We consider that under an increase in desertification, semi-arid areas would be
available for stress tolerant crops like Quinoa, but the success for the food security in these regions may depend upon
the variety used.
Palabras claves: Quinoa; Thermal Amplitude; Plasticity; Ecophysiology; Crop Yield
Referencia APA: Montecinos, S., Salinas, P., Oses, R., González-Silvestre, L., & Molina-Montenegro, M. (2012). Linking Climatic Variability with Spatial Performance in Two Varieties of Quinoa Distributed in a Semi-Arid Zone. AJPS, 03(12), 1682-1687.
Latitudinal Patterns in Phenotypic Plasticity and Fitness-Related Traits: Assessing the Climatic Variability Hypothesis (CVH) with an Invasive Plant Species.
Molina-Montenegro, M. & Naya, D.
Phenotypic plasticity has been suggested as the main mechanism for species persistence under a global change scenario, and also as one of the main mechanisms that alien species use to tolerate and invade broad geographic areas. However, contrasting with this central role of phenotypic plasticity, standard models aimed to predict the effect of climatic change on species distributions do not allow for the inclusion of differences in plastic responses among populations. In this context, the climatic variability hypothesis (CVH), which states that higher thermal variability at higher latitudes should determine an increase in phenotypic plasticity with latitude, could be considered a timely and promising hypothesis. Accordingly, in this study we evaluated, for the first time in a plant species (Taraxacum officinale), the prediction of the CVH. Specifically, we measured plastic responses at different environmental temperatures (5 and 20°C), in several ecophysiological and fitness-related traits for five populations distributed along a broad latitudinal gradient. Overall, phenotypic plasticity increased with latitude for all six traits analyzed, and mean trait values increased with latitude at both experimental temperatures, the change was noticeably greater at 20° than at 5°C. Our results suggest that the positive relationship found between phenotypic plasticity and geographic latitude could have very deep implications on future species persistence and invasion processes under a scenario of climate change.
Palabras claves: Biogeography, Latitude, Invasive species, Phenotypes, Climate change, Seeds, Photosynthetic efficiency, Plants.
Referencia APA: Molina-Montenegro, M. & Naya, D. (2012). Latitudinal Patterns in Phenotypic Plasticity and Fitness-Related Traits: Assessing the Climatic Variability Hypothesis (CVH) with an Invasive Plant Species. Plos ONE, 7(10), e47620.
Higher plasticity in ecophysiological traits enhances the performance and invasion success of Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) in alpine environments
Molina-Montenegro, M., Peñuelas, J., Munné-Bosch, S., & Sardans, J.
Phenotypic plasticity has long been suggested to facilitate biological invasions in changing environments, allowing a species to maintain a good ecophysiological performance. High-mountain habitats have been particularly useful for evaluation of the relative importance of environmental conditions in the colonization and invasion process, because they have heterogeneous and stressful climatic conditions, inducing photoinhibition. Light intensity is one of the most changing conditions along altitudinal gradients, showing more variability in higher altitudes. In this study, we analyzed the plasticity in photoprotective strategies and performance of the invasive Taraxacum officinale. Additionally, we tested whether higher plasticity enhances competitive ability in an alpine environment We conducted an experiment to evaluate plasticity with a second generation (F2) of T. officinale individuals from 1,600 to 3,600 m, in a greenhouse with variation in light intensity. Treatments consisted of transferring 120 individuals from each altitude to two conditions of light intensity. We then recorded concentrations of photoprotection pigment, de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle, foliar angles, photochemical efficiency by fluorescence of photosystem II, total dry biomass and flower production. Additionally, we compared plasticity in both photoprotective and performance traits between T. officinale and the co-occurring native species Hypochaeris thrincioides. Finally, we performed a manipulative experiment under two light regimes in order to assess the competitive outcome between the invasive T. officinale and the native H. thrincioides. Individuals from higher altitude showed significantly greater plasticity than individuals from lower altitude. Similarly, individuals under high light intensity showed higher levels of photoprotective pigments, biomass and flower production. On the other hand, the invasive plant species showed significantly greater plasticity than the co-occurring native species, and a strong negative impact on the biomass of the native plant. Phenotypic plasticity seems to be a successful strategy in T. officinale to compete with native species and may be positively associated with the success of invasions, being greater in individuals from more heterogeneous and stressful environments.
Palabras claves: Altitudinal gradientCompetitionFluorescenceLight intensityPhotoprotective pigmentsXanthophyll cycle
Referencia APA: Molina-Montenegro, M., Peñuelas, J., Munné-Bosch, S., & Sardans, J. (2012). Higher plasticity in ecophysiological traits enhances the performance and invasion success of Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) in alpine environments. Biol Invasions, 14(1), 21-33.
Modelling the Water Sorption Isotherms of Quinoa Seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and Determination of Sorption Heats.
Miranda, M., Vega-Gálvez, A., Sanders, M., López, J., Lemus-Mondaca, R., Martínez, E., & Di Scala, K.
Adsorption and desorption isotherms of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were measured using the static gravimetric method at three temperatures (20, 40 and 60 °C). Water activity ranged from 0.118 to 0.937. The moisture sorption behaviour of quinoa was temperature dependent, as indicated by a decrease in equilibrium moisture content, at all levels of aw, with increasing temperature. Eight mathematical equations available in the literature were used to model the experimental data, namely, GAB, BET, Caurie, Henderson, Oswin, Halsey, Smith and Iglesias–Chirife. All the equations showed generally a good fit; however, the Iglesias–Chirife and Oswin equations were considered the best to predict the experimental data for both isotherms. Effect of temperature on model parameters was analysed and studied through an Arrhenius-type equation. The net isosteric heats of desorption and adsorption were determined by applying the Clausius–Clapeyron equation resulting in 69.24 kJ mol−1 for desorption and 61.26 kJ mol−1 for adsorption. The experimental heat data were satisfactorily modelled by Tsami’s equation.
Palabras claves: Quinoa, Sorption isotherms, Isosteric sorption heat, Mathematical modelling.
Referencia APA: Miranda, M., Vega-Gálvez, A., Sanders, M., López, J., Lemus-Mondaca, R., Martínez, E., & Di Scala, K. (2012). Modelling the Water Sorption Isotherms of Quinoa Seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and Determination of Sorption Heats. Food Bioprocess Technol, 5(5), 1686-1693.
Determinants of the diversity of plants, birds and mammals of coastal islands of the Humboldt current systems: implications for conservation.
Luna-Jorquera, G., Fernández, C., & Rivadeneira, M.
Sound conservation plans for islands require understanding the processes underlying to the patterns of species richness and composition. Larger islands are often the targets of conservation assuming that the island area mainly determines species richness, and that species composition is nested across islands. However, in small-island these patterns could be altered because of stochastic processes, and species assemblages could be disharmonious. In addition, human impact could further modify the distribution pattern and diversity. Here we use the case of seven islands from the coastal system of Coquimbo as a model to address the role of environmental variables and human impacts on species richness and assembly rules of plants, birds, and mammals. We hypothesize (a) the existence of a small-island effect, and the prevalence of habitat diversity and anthropogenic impacts as main drivers of species richness, and (b) the existence of disharmonious assemblages, characterized by a low degree of nestedness and random patterns of species co-occurrence. Our results showed that (a) species richness is mainly correlated with habitat diversity, and only weakly related to island area supporting the ‘small-island effect’ and (b) species composition is highly structured, but that such structure may be the result of anthropogenic activities. Nestedness was observed in plants and landbirds, while co-occurrence patterns were only detected in plants. Assemblages in small-islands departed from the nestedness pattern and maintain rare species. Currently, only three of the seven islands are protected by national regulations, excluding the smaller ones that are subjected to human disturbance and invasive mammals. Our study suggests that it necessary to include all the islands in a major protected area to preserve both richness and species composition of a number of representative islands of the Humboldt current systems. We showed that conservation plans solely based on island area might not be robust.
Palabras claves: Humboldt, current, Conservation, Small-island effect, Island biogeography.
Referencia APA: Luna-Jorquera, G., Fernández, C., & Rivadeneira, M. (2012). Determinants of the diversity of plants, birds and mammals of coastal islands of the Humboldt current systems: implications for conservation. Biodiversity And Conservation, 21(1), 13-32.
Distribution of Pleuroncodes monodon larvae over the continental shelf of south-central Chile: Field and modeling evidence for partial local retention and transport.
Yannicelli, B., Castro, L., Parada, C., Schneider, W., Colas, F., & Donoso, D.
In situ and modeled spatial distribution of squat lobster (Pleuroncodes monodon) larvae over the continental shelf off south central Chile (35–37°S) was analyzed along with currents and hydrography. We aimed to identify the main larval transport/retention characteristics in the study area, which constitutes the southernmost P. monodon fishing grounds embedded in the Humboldt Current System. We hypothesized that the main contribution to population renewal originates in the two persistent adult aggregations close to the nursery ground that occurs over a continental shelf terrace limited by two submarine canyons. Two extensive bio-physical field campaigns were carried out during the main 2001–2002 upwelling season field data indicated that larvae were released from late austral winter to spring from spots to the north and south of the nursery. Zoea I were found mainly below 50 m depth in southward-flowing waters, whereas older zoea dominated in northward flowing layers above 50 m. Larvae were circumscribed between the coast and the shelf break front and pelagic retention areas were identified over the widest shelf area. Megalopa and juveniles during March, were only found over the nursery area. Individual based simulations coupled to the output of a hydrodynamic model (climatological configuration) for the studied area, showed that the release sites close to the nursery made the largest contribution to recruitment. Sites further north could also contribute to recruitment if hatching occurred later in the upwelling season. The contribution of vertical behavior to larval success was also important, as was the former’s interaction with the site and time of larval release. Our results support the relevance of coastal circulation (affected by topography) on the persistence of P. monodon populations off southern Chile, and the modulation of temporal variability. These results might apply to other abundant species in the area.
Referencia APA: Yannicelli, B., Castro, L., Parada, C., Schneider, W., Colas, F., & Donoso, D. (2012). local Distribution of Pleuroncodes monodon larvae over the continental shelf of south-central Chile: Field and modeling evidence for partial retention and transport. Progress In Oceanography, 92-95, 206-227.
Rise And Decline Of Chinchorro Sacred Landscapes Along The Hyperarid Coast Of The Atacama Desert.
Santoro, C., Rivadeneira, M., Latorre, C., Rothhammer, F., & Standen, V.
The study of complex funerary ritual development among hunters and gatherers societies should take into account how people made up for the continuity of their social system without the support of centralized organizations. This research integrates cultural and natural factors to explore how the Chinchorro carried on with their way of life isolated at geographically restricted perennial river mouths with fresh water along the Atacama Desert in the Pacific coast of South America. Within these rather crowded settlings, they created and maintained a social system catalyzed by a complex funerary tradition, embodied by a unique funerary ideological discourse that resulted in the creation of a sacred landscape or "spiritscape". We argue that the extreme hyperaridity of the coastal Atacama Desert (21° - 17.30° S), and the extraordinary biomass production of the marine littoral constituted a fundamental milieu for the maintenance of their long-term social system. The Chinchorro belief system lasted for several millennia (8,000-4,000 BP), but new ways of life and burial practices followed major changes in the coastal ecosystem they relied on, which would have influenced how the "old tradition" was manifested over time. Conversely, we sustain that these natural "constraints" faced by the Chinchorro along the coast of the Atacama Desert, were influential, in the course of their history or the way they socially organized themselves.
Palabras claves: Chinchorro spiritscape, sacred landscape, hyperaridity, coastal Atacama Desert.
Referencia APA: : Santoro, C., Rivadeneira, M., Latorre, C., Rothhammer, F., & Standen, V. (2012). Rise And Decline Of Chinchorro Sacred Landscapes Along The Hyperarid Coast Of The Atacama Desert. Chungará (Arica), 44(4), 637-653.
Towards the creation of an integrated system of protected areas in Chile: achievements and challenges
Squeo, F., Estévez, R., Stoll, A., Gaymer, C., Letelier, L., & Sierralta, L.
Chile is committed to extending its National System of Protected Areas (NSPA), focusing on eco-regions whose ecosystems are currently under-represented in the NSPA. A newly proposed law aims to create a Service of Biodiversity and Protected Areas that would unify the terrestrial and marine systems. The proposed law would allow the inclusion of private protected areas.
Palabras claves: biodiversity, GAP analysis, eco-regional planning, marine and terrestrial protected areas, private protected areas, public tenure,
Referencia APA: Squeo, F., Estévez, R., Stoll, A., Gaymer, C., Letelier, L., & Sierralta, L. (2012). Towards the creation of an integrated system of protected areas in Chile: achievements and challenges. Plant Ecology & Diversity, 5(2), 233-243.
Heritability and genetic correlations of escape behaviours in juvenile scallop Argopecten purpuratus.
Brokordt, K., Farías, W., Lhorente, J., & Winkler, F.
Escape behaviours are generally considered adaptive because of their obvious effects on fitness. However, little is known about the genetic basis of escape responses. The estimation of the magnitude of hereditary factors affecting variation in escape responses indicates their potential to evolve by natural selection. Scallops are exceptional among bivalve molluscs because they possess an excellent swimming capacity, which helps them to escape predators. In this study we estimated the narrow-sense heritability (h2), phenotypic variance components and phenotypic and genetic correlations of several escape response traits (i.e. reaction time, number of claps (rapid valve closures and openings), and the duration and intensity of the clapping response) in juvenile Argopecten purpuratus scallops. We stimulated scallop escape responses using their natural predator, the sea star Meyenaster gelatinosus. Genetic estimates for escape response traits were determined by the animal model. Most studied traits showed substantial amounts of additive genetic variance controlling their phenotypic variation (CVA = 18.43–100.2), were repeatable (at least over a short period, R = 0.36–0.42), and had significant heritabilities (h2 = 0.36–0.57). Indeed, it can be inferred that most of the analysed escape response traits of A. purpuratus could evolve through natural selection. Moreover, significant genetic correlations between some escape response traits were observed, suggesting that selection acting on one escape trait will affect that of another, facilitating their coevolution.
Palabras claves: Argopecten purpuratus; escape behaviour; genetic correlation; heritability; scallop
Referencia APA: Brokordt, K., Farías, W., Lhorente, J., & Winkler, F. (2012). Heritability and genetic correlations of escape behaviours in juvenile scallop Argopecten purpuratus. Animal Behaviour, 84(2), 479-484.
What do we know about high-altitude precipitation in the semi-arid Andes of Chile?
Bourgin P, Andreassian V, Gascoin S, Valery A.
Mapping precipitations on a regular grid is often required for hydrological and ecological modelling. The spatial interpolation methods are generally used to estimate such a distribution from ground-based measurements. In the case of mountainous areas, the estimation of precipitation amounts is still a challenging task and the results of spatial interpolation should be verified as much as possible. Here we describe a three-steps method for the validation of a precipitation map. This is used in the context of a mountainous semi-arid region, the Norte Chico in Chile (26°S-32°S). The implementation of this validation method showed the benefits of an interpolation method developed by Valéry  for mountainous areas. The hydrological balance of the high-altitude watersheds is now more realistic.
Palabras claves: Precipitation, spatial interpolation method, extrapolation, altitude, altitudinal corrections, validation, water equivalent, water balance.
Referencia APA: Bourgin P, Andreassian V, Gascoin S, Valery A. (2012). Que sait-on des précipitations en altitude dans les Andes semi-arides du Chili?. La Houille Blanche. 2012;(2):12-17.