Emergence of social complexity among coastal hunter-gatherers in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile.
Marquet, P., Santoro, C., Latorre, C., Standen, V., Abades, S., & Rivadeneira, M. et al.
The emergence of complex cultural practices in simple hunter-gatherer groups poses interesting questions on what drives social complexity and what causes the emergence and disappearance of cultural innovations. Here we analyze the conditions that underlie the emergence of artificial mummification in the Chinchorro culture in the coastal Atacama Desert in northern Chile and southern Peru. We provide empirical and theoretical evidence that artificial mummification appeared during a period of increased coastal freshwater availability and marine productivity, which caused an increase in human population size and accelerated the emergence of cultural innovations, as predicted by recent models of cultural and technological evolution. Under a scenario of increasing population size and extreme aridity (with little or no decomposition of corpses) a simple demographic model shows that dead individuals may have become a significant part of the landscape, creating the conditions for the manipulation of the dead that led to the emergence of complex mortuary practices.
Palabras claves: climate variability, coastal desert, cultural evolution
Referencia APA: Marquet, P., Santoro, C., Latorre, C., Standen, V., Abades, S., & Rivadeneira, M. et al. (2012). Emergence of social complexity among coastal hunter-gatherers in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences, 109(37), 14754-14760. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1116724109
Plasticidad fenotípica en dos poblaciones antárticas de Colobanthus quitensis (Caryophyllaceae) bajo un escenario simulado de cambio global
Molina-Montenegro, M., Torres-Díaz, C., Carrasco-Urra, F., González-Silvestre, L., & Gianoli, E.
La Antártica se caracteriza por presentar condiciones ambientales extremas, lo cual limita el establecimiento de las plantas vasculares. Dentro de dichas características ambientales están las bajas temperaturas, corta estación de crecimiento y el estrés hídrico y nutricional. La baja disponibilidad hídrica ha sido sugerida como la principal limitante para el éxito de establecimiento, debido a que afecta de manera negativa las respuestas fisiológicas y reproductivas de las plantas. Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl. (Caryophyllaceae) es una de las dos plantas vasculares nativas que habitan la Antártica Marítima y se ha demostrado que su desempeño fisiológico y reclutamiento es afectado negativamente por el estrés hídrico del suelo. La plasticidad fenotípica y la adaptación local serían dos de las principales estrategias de C. quitensis para lidiar con las adversas condiciones ambientales que predominan en el continente antártico. Se ha documentado que, bajo un escenario futuro de cambio climático, la disponibilidad hídrica en la Antártica aumentaría entre un 30-40%, mejorando las condiciones para el establecimiento. En el presente trabajo evaluamos mediante un experimento de jardín común, realizado en cámaras de crecimiento, la plasticidad morfo-fisiológica y el esfuerzo reproductivo en individuos de C. quitensis provenientes de dos sitios en las Islas Shetland, bajo un escenario simulado de cambio climático (aumento en un 40% de la disponibilidad hídrica) y bajo la situación actual (disponibilidad hídrica registrada en los sitios de origen). En general, los individuos de C. quitensis de ambos sitios presentaron evidencia de plasticidad, aumentando su eficiencia fotoquímica, largo y ancho foliar, y esfuerzo reproductivo bajo la condición de aumento en la disponibilidad hídrica. La magnitud del aumento en la respuesta plástica fue mayor en aquellos individuos provenientes del sitio más árido en comparación a sus con-específicos del sitio más húmedo. Si los actuales patrones de cambio climático se mantienen, las condiciones abióticas podrían volverse más favorables para C. quitensis, mejorando su desempeño ecofisiológico y permitiendo la expansión de su rango de distribución sobre la Antártica.
Palabras claves: Antártica, esfuerzo reproductivo, estrés hídrico, Fv / Fm, islas Shetland.
Referencia APA: Molina-Montenegro, M., Torres-Díaz, C., Carrasco-Urra, F., González-Silvestre, L., & Gianoli, E. (2012). Plasticidad fenotípica en dos poblaciones antárticas de Colobanthus quitensis (Caryophyllaceae) bajo un escenario simulado de cambio global. Gayana Bot., 69(1), 152-160.
Cold-acclimation limits low temperature induced photoinhibition by promoting a higher photochemical quantum yield and a more effective PSII restoration in darkness in the Antarctic rather than the Andean ecotype of Colobanthus quitensis Kunt Bartl (Cariophyllaceae)
Bascuñán-Godoy, L., Sanhueza, C., Cuba, M., Zuñiga, G., Corcuera, L., & Bravo, L.
Ecotypes of Colobanthus quitensis Kunt Bartl (Cariophyllaceae) from Andes Mountains and Maritime Antarctic grow under contrasting photoinhibitory conditions, reaching differential cold tolerance upon cold acclimation. Photoinhibition depends on the extent of photodamage and recovery capability. We propose that cold acclimation increases resistance to low-temperature-induced photoinhibition, limiting photodamage and promoting recovery under cold. Therefore, the Antarctic ecotype (cold hardiest) should be less photoinhibited and have better recovery from low-temperature-induced photoinhibition than the Andean ecotype. Both ecotypes were exposed to cold induced photoinhibitory treatment (PhT). Photoinhibition and recovery of photosystem II (PSII) was followed by fluorescence, CO2 exchange, and immunoblotting analyses.
Palabras claves: Antarctic plants, Andean plants, Cold-induced-photoinhibition, Recovery, PSII restoration, D1 cycle, Photoprotection
Referencia APA: Bascuñán-Godoy, L., Sanhueza, C., Cuba, M., Zuñiga, G., Corcuera, L., & Bravo, L. (2012). Cold-acclimation limits low temperature induced photoinhibition by promoting a higher photochemical quantum yield and a more effective PSII restoration in darkness in the Antarctic rather than the Andean ecotype of Colobanthus quitensis Kunt Bartl (Cariophyllaceae). BMC Plant Biol, 12(1), 114.
Occurrence of the Non-Native Annual Bluegrass on the Antarctic Mainland and Its Negative Effects on Native Plants.
Molina-Montenegro, M., Carrasco-Urra, F., Rodrigo, C., Convey, P., Valladares, F., & Gianoli, E.
Few non-native species have colonized Antarctica, although increased human activity and accelerated climate change may increase their number, distributional range, and effects on native species on the continent. We searched 13 sites on the maritime Antarctic islands and 12 sites on the Antarctic Peninsula for annual bluegrass (Poa annua), a non-native flowering plant. We also evaluated the possible effects of competition between P. annua and 2 vascular plants native to Antarctica, Antarctic pearlwort (Colobanthus quitensis) and Antarctic hairgrass (Deschampsia antarctica). We grew the native species in experimental plots with and without annual bluegrass under conditions that mimicked the Antarctic environment. After 5 months, we measured photosynthetic performance on the basis of chlorophyll fluorescence and determined total biomass of both native species. We found individual specimens of annual bluegrass at 3 different sites on the Antarctic Peninsula during the 2007–2008 and 2009–2010 austral summers. The presence of bluegrass was associated with a statistically significant reduction in biomass of pearlwort and hairgrass, whereas the decrease in biomass of bluegrass was not statistically significant. Similarly, the presence of bluegrass significantly reduced the photosynthetic performance of the 2 native species. Sites where bluegrass occurred were close to major maritime routes of scientific expeditions and of tourist cruises to Antarctica. We believe that if current levels of human activity and regional warming persist, more non-native plant species are likely to colonize the Antarctic and may affect native species.
Palabras claves: Colobanthus quitensis;Deschampsia antarctica;hairgrass;non-native species;pearlwort;species competition;tourism;Poa annuaColobanthus quitensis;competencia de especies;Deschampsia antarctica;especie no nativa;Poa annua;turismo
Referencia APA: Molina-Montenegro, M., Carrasco-Urra, F., Rodrigo, C., Convey, P., Valladares, F., & Gianoli, E. (2012). Occurrence of the Non-Native Annual Bluegrass on the Antarctic Mainland and Its Negative Effects on Native Plants. Conservation Biology, 26(4), 717-723.
Linking Climatic Variability with Spatial Performance in Two Varieties of Quinoa Distributed in a Semi-Arid Zone.
Montecinos, S., Salinas, P., Oses, R., González-Silvestre, L., & Molina-Montenegro, M.
Different crop varieties can respond in different ways to the climatic variations at local scale. Thus, in order to maximize
the yield for a determined crop, the response of different varieties submitted to local climatic conditions should be
assessed. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the ecophysiological responses of two varieties of Quinoa (PRP
and BO78) submitted to different conditions of thermal amplitude. We performed two experiments in both greenhouse
and in 3 sites on experimental-field where were evaluated survival, photochemical efficiency, plant growth and dry
biomass in both varieties and compared them with the mean of the thermal conditions recorded during the last 16 years
in the Coquimbo Region, Chile. Overall, individuals of BO78 showed higher performance in the sites with lower thermal
amplitude than those of PRP. By contrast, in sites with higher thermal amplitude individuals of PRP showed better
survival, physiological performance and biomass and therefore higher performance. Our results suggest that while
BO78 showed an ecotypic strategy, the PRP showed a plastic strategy to maintain higher performance in sites with
moderate and high climatic variability. We consider that under an increase in desertification, semi-arid areas would be
available for stress tolerant crops like Quinoa, but the success for the food security in these regions may depend upon
the variety used.
Palabras claves: Quinoa; Thermal Amplitude; Plasticity; Ecophysiology; Crop Yield
Referencia APA: Montecinos, S., Salinas, P., Oses, R., González-Silvestre, L., & Molina-Montenegro, M. (2012). Linking Climatic Variability with Spatial Performance in Two Varieties of Quinoa Distributed in a Semi-Arid Zone. AJPS, 03(12), 1682-1687.
Latitudinal Patterns in Phenotypic Plasticity and Fitness-Related Traits: Assessing the Climatic Variability Hypothesis (CVH) with an Invasive Plant Species.
Molina-Montenegro, M. & Naya, D.
Phenotypic plasticity has been suggested as the main mechanism for species persistence under a global change scenario, and also as one of the main mechanisms that alien species use to tolerate and invade broad geographic areas. However, contrasting with this central role of phenotypic plasticity, standard models aimed to predict the effect of climatic change on species distributions do not allow for the inclusion of differences in plastic responses among populations. In this context, the climatic variability hypothesis (CVH), which states that higher thermal variability at higher latitudes should determine an increase in phenotypic plasticity with latitude, could be considered a timely and promising hypothesis. Accordingly, in this study we evaluated, for the first time in a plant species (Taraxacum officinale), the prediction of the CVH. Specifically, we measured plastic responses at different environmental temperatures (5 and 20°C), in several ecophysiological and fitness-related traits for five populations distributed along a broad latitudinal gradient. Overall, phenotypic plasticity increased with latitude for all six traits analyzed, and mean trait values increased with latitude at both experimental temperatures, the change was noticeably greater at 20° than at 5°C. Our results suggest that the positive relationship found between phenotypic plasticity and geographic latitude could have very deep implications on future species persistence and invasion processes under a scenario of climate change.
Palabras claves: Biogeography, Latitude, Invasive species, Phenotypes, Climate change, Seeds, Photosynthetic efficiency, Plants.
Referencia APA: Molina-Montenegro, M. & Naya, D. (2012). Latitudinal Patterns in Phenotypic Plasticity and Fitness-Related Traits: Assessing the Climatic Variability Hypothesis (CVH) with an Invasive Plant Species. Plos ONE, 7(10), e47620.
Higher plasticity in ecophysiological traits enhances the performance and invasion success of Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) in alpine environments
Molina-Montenegro, M., Peñuelas, J., Munné-Bosch, S., & Sardans, J.
Phenotypic plasticity has long been suggested to facilitate biological invasions in changing environments, allowing a species to maintain a good ecophysiological performance. High-mountain habitats have been particularly useful for evaluation of the relative importance of environmental conditions in the colonization and invasion process, because they have heterogeneous and stressful climatic conditions, inducing photoinhibition. Light intensity is one of the most changing conditions along altitudinal gradients, showing more variability in higher altitudes. In this study, we analyzed the plasticity in photoprotective strategies and performance of the invasive Taraxacum officinale. Additionally, we tested whether higher plasticity enhances competitive ability in an alpine environment We conducted an experiment to evaluate plasticity with a second generation (F2) of T. officinale individuals from 1,600 to 3,600 m, in a greenhouse with variation in light intensity. Treatments consisted of transferring 120 individuals from each altitude to two conditions of light intensity. We then recorded concentrations of photoprotection pigment, de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle, foliar angles, photochemical efficiency by fluorescence of photosystem II, total dry biomass and flower production. Additionally, we compared plasticity in both photoprotective and performance traits between T. officinale and the co-occurring native species Hypochaeris thrincioides. Finally, we performed a manipulative experiment under two light regimes in order to assess the competitive outcome between the invasive T. officinale and the native H. thrincioides. Individuals from higher altitude showed significantly greater plasticity than individuals from lower altitude. Similarly, individuals under high light intensity showed higher levels of photoprotective pigments, biomass and flower production. On the other hand, the invasive plant species showed significantly greater plasticity than the co-occurring native species, and a strong negative impact on the biomass of the native plant. Phenotypic plasticity seems to be a successful strategy in T. officinale to compete with native species and may be positively associated with the success of invasions, being greater in individuals from more heterogeneous and stressful environments.
Palabras claves: Altitudinal gradientCompetitionFluorescenceLight intensityPhotoprotective pigmentsXanthophyll cycle
Referencia APA: Molina-Montenegro, M., Peñuelas, J., Munné-Bosch, S., & Sardans, J. (2012). Higher plasticity in ecophysiological traits enhances the performance and invasion success of Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) in alpine environments. Biol Invasions, 14(1), 21-33.
Modelling the Water Sorption Isotherms of Quinoa Seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and Determination of Sorption Heats.
Miranda, M., Vega-Gálvez, A., Sanders, M., López, J., Lemus-Mondaca, R., Martínez, E., & Di Scala, K.
Adsorption and desorption isotherms of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were measured using the static gravimetric method at three temperatures (20, 40 and 60 °C). Water activity ranged from 0.118 to 0.937. The moisture sorption behaviour of quinoa was temperature dependent, as indicated by a decrease in equilibrium moisture content, at all levels of aw, with increasing temperature. Eight mathematical equations available in the literature were used to model the experimental data, namely, GAB, BET, Caurie, Henderson, Oswin, Halsey, Smith and Iglesias–Chirife. All the equations showed generally a good fit; however, the Iglesias–Chirife and Oswin equations were considered the best to predict the experimental data for both isotherms. Effect of temperature on model parameters was analysed and studied through an Arrhenius-type equation. The net isosteric heats of desorption and adsorption were determined by applying the Clausius–Clapeyron equation resulting in 69.24 kJ mol−1 for desorption and 61.26 kJ mol−1 for adsorption. The experimental heat data were satisfactorily modelled by Tsami’s equation.
Palabras claves: Quinoa, Sorption isotherms, Isosteric sorption heat, Mathematical modelling.
Referencia APA: Miranda, M., Vega-Gálvez, A., Sanders, M., López, J., Lemus-Mondaca, R., Martínez, E., & Di Scala, K. (2012). Modelling the Water Sorption Isotherms of Quinoa Seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and Determination of Sorption Heats. Food Bioprocess Technol, 5(5), 1686-1693.
Determinants of the diversity of plants, birds and mammals of coastal islands of the Humboldt current systems: implications for conservation.
Luna-Jorquera, G., Fernández, C., & Rivadeneira, M.
Sound conservation plans for islands require understanding the processes underlying to the patterns of species richness and composition. Larger islands are often the targets of conservation assuming that the island area mainly determines species richness, and that species composition is nested across islands. However, in small-island these patterns could be altered because of stochastic processes, and species assemblages could be disharmonious. In addition, human impact could further modify the distribution pattern and diversity. Here we use the case of seven islands from the coastal system of Coquimbo as a model to address the role of environmental variables and human impacts on species richness and assembly rules of plants, birds, and mammals. We hypothesize (a) the existence of a small-island effect, and the prevalence of habitat diversity and anthropogenic impacts as main drivers of species richness, and (b) the existence of disharmonious assemblages, characterized by a low degree of nestedness and random patterns of species co-occurrence. Our results showed that (a) species richness is mainly correlated with habitat diversity, and only weakly related to island area supporting the ‘small-island effect’ and (b) species composition is highly structured, but that such structure may be the result of anthropogenic activities. Nestedness was observed in plants and landbirds, while co-occurrence patterns were only detected in plants. Assemblages in small-islands departed from the nestedness pattern and maintain rare species. Currently, only three of the seven islands are protected by national regulations, excluding the smaller ones that are subjected to human disturbance and invasive mammals. Our study suggests that it necessary to include all the islands in a major protected area to preserve both richness and species composition of a number of representative islands of the Humboldt current systems. We showed that conservation plans solely based on island area might not be robust.
Palabras claves: Humboldt, current, Conservation, Small-island effect, Island biogeography.
Referencia APA: Luna-Jorquera, G., Fernández, C., & Rivadeneira, M. (2012). Determinants of the diversity of plants, birds and mammals of coastal islands of the Humboldt current systems: implications for conservation. Biodiversity And Conservation, 21(1), 13-32.
Distribution of Pleuroncodes monodon larvae over the continental shelf of south-central Chile: Field and modeling evidence for partial local retention and transport.
Yannicelli, B., Castro, L., Parada, C., Schneider, W., Colas, F., & Donoso, D.
In situ and modeled spatial distribution of squat lobster (Pleuroncodes monodon) larvae over the continental shelf off south central Chile (35–37°S) was analyzed along with currents and hydrography. We aimed to identify the main larval transport/retention characteristics in the study area, which constitutes the southernmost P. monodon fishing grounds embedded in the Humboldt Current System. We hypothesized that the main contribution to population renewal originates in the two persistent adult aggregations close to the nursery ground that occurs over a continental shelf terrace limited by two submarine canyons. Two extensive bio-physical field campaigns were carried out during the main 2001–2002 upwelling season field data indicated that larvae were released from late austral winter to spring from spots to the north and south of the nursery. Zoea I were found mainly below 50 m depth in southward-flowing waters, whereas older zoea dominated in northward flowing layers above 50 m. Larvae were circumscribed between the coast and the shelf break front and pelagic retention areas were identified over the widest shelf area. Megalopa and juveniles during March, were only found over the nursery area. Individual based simulations coupled to the output of a hydrodynamic model (climatological configuration) for the studied area, showed that the release sites close to the nursery made the largest contribution to recruitment. Sites further north could also contribute to recruitment if hatching occurred later in the upwelling season. The contribution of vertical behavior to larval success was also important, as was the former’s interaction with the site and time of larval release. Our results support the relevance of coastal circulation (affected by topography) on the persistence of P. monodon populations off southern Chile, and the modulation of temporal variability. These results might apply to other abundant species in the area.
Referencia APA: Yannicelli, B., Castro, L., Parada, C., Schneider, W., Colas, F., & Donoso, D. (2012). local Distribution of Pleuroncodes monodon larvae over the continental shelf of south-central Chile: Field and modeling evidence for partial retention and transport. Progress In Oceanography, 92-95, 206-227.
What do we know about high-altitude precipitation in the semi-arid Andes of Chile?
Bourgin P, Andreassian V, Gascoin S, Valery A.
Mapping precipitations on a regular grid is often required for hydrological and ecological modelling. The spatial interpolation methods are generally used to estimate such a distribution from ground-based measurements. In the case of mountainous areas, the estimation of precipitation amounts is still a challenging task and the results of spatial interpolation should be verified as much as possible. Here we describe a three-steps method for the validation of a precipitation map. This is used in the context of a mountainous semi-arid region, the Norte Chico in Chile (26°S-32°S). The implementation of this validation method showed the benefits of an interpolation method developed by Valéry  for mountainous areas. The hydrological balance of the high-altitude watersheds is now more realistic.
Palabras claves: Precipitation, spatial interpolation method, extrapolation, altitude, altitudinal corrections, validation, water equivalent, water balance.
Referencia APA: Bourgin P, Andreassian V, Gascoin S, Valery A. (2012). Que sait-on des précipitations en altitude dans les Andes semi-arides du Chili?. La Houille Blanche. 2012;(2):12-17.