Rootstock effect on irrigated grapevine yield under arid climate conditions are explained by changes in traits related to light absorption of the scion
Bascuñán-Godoy, L., Franck, N., Zamorano, D., Sanhueza, C., Carvajal, D., & Ibacache, A.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effect of rootstocks on table grapevines grown under irrigated conditions in the arid North macro-zone of Chile.
Grapevine cv. Red Globe grafted onto three rootstocks (Harmony, Saint George and Salt Creek) were studied Structural and physiological parameters were monitored at different phenological stages under optimal production conditions.
An outstanding yield increment brought about by the rootstocks Harmony and Salt Creek was correlated with increased individual leaf and specific leaf area, pruning weight (proxy for total leaf area), photosynthesis per unit leaf mass, sugar in leaves and root carbon reserves. In addition, these high yielding rootstocks induced higher contents of light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein of photosystem II and total chlorophyll in the leaves of the scion. No correlations of yield with traits involved in water use (relative water content or instantaneous water use efficiency) were observed.
The effects of rootstocks on the light capture capacity of the scion directly affected carbon assimilation and storage and, accordingly, yield. Therefore, the identified traits are valuable targets for screening and selecting yield efficient rootstocks for irrigated table grape production in arid zones.
Palabras claves: Grapevine rootstock, Light capture, Photo synthesis, Pruning weight, Red Globe, Yield
Referencia APA: Bascuñán-Godoy, L., Franck, N., Zamorano, D., Sanhueza, C., Carvajal, D., & Ibacache, A. (2017). Rootstock effect on irrigated grapevine yield under arid climate conditions are explained by changes in traits related to light absorption of the scion. Scientia Horticulturae, 218, 284-292. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2017.02.034
Nurse effect and herbivory exclusion facilitate plant colonization in abandoned mine tailings storage facilities in north-central Chile.
Cuevas, J., Silva, S., León-Lobos, P., & Ginocchio, R.
Positive interactions among plants, such as the nurse effect, can attenuate environmental stress (e.g., drought) or reduce the intensity of perturbations (e.g., herbivory), thus enhancing the possibility of regeneration in natural systems. This study analyses the potential use of nurse plants for restoring artificial environments, such as mine hard-rock dumps. We evaluated seedling recruitment and survival in open areas and beneath the canopy of nurse shrubs, with and without grazing exclusion, on an abandoned copper tailings storage facility in north-central Chile. The nurse species was Baccharis linearis (Asteraceae), and seedling species were B. linearis, Haplopappus parvifolius (Asteraceae), Schismus arabicus (Poaceae), and several forb/grass taxa. A field survey showed that seedlings of all species were more abundant beneath the Baccharis shrub canopy coverage than in the open spaces between shrubs. Only Baccharis seedlings produced a significant difference. We found a decreasing sequence of seedling survival under the following conditions: beneath the Baccharis canopy with herbivore exclusion, beneath the canopy without exclusion, in the open field with exclusion, and finally, in the open field without exclusion. Substrates beneath shrubs had higher P and K levels at depths < 10 cm than substrates in open areas. Water content, substrate compaction, and plant diversity did not differ between microenvironments. Our results demonstrate the importance of both the nurse effect and herbivore exclusion in enhancing seedling establishment on abandoned mine tailings storage facilities in semi-arid north-central Chile. Thus shedding light upon the ecological restoration possibilities in such disturbed environments.
Palabras claves: Baccharis linearis, Haplopappus parvifolius, hard rock waste, primary succession, survival analysis.
Referencia APA: Cuevas, J., Silva, S., León-Lobos, P., & Ginocchio, R. (2013). Nurse effect and herbivory exclusion facilitate plant colonization in abandoned mine tailings storage facilities in north-central Chile. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 86(1), 63-74.
The role of ex situ seed banks in the conservation of plant diversity and in ecological restoration in Latin America.
León-Lobos, P., Way, M., Aranda, P., & Lima-Junior, M.
The collection, conservation and use of seeds from arid and semi-arid biomes is highly effective; however the higher frequency of recalcitrant seeds in humid tropical forests requires a greater investment in research to underpin large-scale seed banking. In order to safeguard native species and provide adequate diversity of seeds for habitat restoration programmes, we anticipate the need to strengthen the capacity of the region's seed banks for preservation, research and propagation of native species.
Palabras claves: desiccation-tolerance, gene bank, genetic diversity, germination, germplasm, plant conservation, threatened species.
Referencia APA: León-Lobos, P., Way, M., Aranda, P., & Lima-Junior, M. (2012). The role of ex situ seed banks in the conservation of plant diversity and in ecological restoration in Latin America. Plant Ecology & Diversity, 5(2), 245-258