Comparación del crecimiento de Argopecten purpuratus entre cohortes obtenidas de captacion de larvas en ambiente natural y de hatchery.
Perez, E., Azocar, C., Araya, A., Astudillo, O., & Ramos, M.
En Chile los cultivos del ostión del norte Argopecten purpuratus han sido desarrollados intensivamente a partir de la captación de semillas en ambiente natural y desde principios de 1980 con semillas obtenidas en hatchery. Para aportar información sobre el desempeño de semillas de ostión del norte en este estudio se comparó, mediante ANCOVA, el crecimiento en longitud entre cohortes producidas a partir de semillas de ambiente natural y de hatchery en Tongoy, Chile. Se evaluó la consistencia de esta comparación en distintos años y estaciones, comparándose parejas de cohortes producidas simultáneamente en los años 2003 (primavera), 2005 (invierno) y 2006 (verano). El análisis estadístico mostró que existen diferencias estadísticas significativas entre cohortes obtenidas en ambiente natural y aquellas obtenidas en hatchery. La prueba de Tukey evidenció diferencias significativas entre CN2003 y CH2003 como también entre CN2005 y CH2005, pero no así entre CN2006 y CH2006. Estas diferencias indican que las cohortes de semillas de ambiente natural crecieron más rápido que las de hatchery. La comparación interanual evidenció diferencias estadísticas significativas. Estos resultados son discutidos a la luz de dos factores: la temperatura de cultivo y la heterocigocidad de la población de cultivo.
Palabras claves: ostión, semillas, ambiente natural, hatchery, crecimiento, norte de Chile.
Assessing the Influence of the MJO on Strong Precipitation Events in Subtropical, Semi-Arid North-Central Chile (30°S).
Juliá, C., Rahn, D., & Rutllant, J.
Annual precipitation in subtropical, semiarid north-central Chile (30°S) during rainy years comprises a few (3–5) strong events in the fall and winter, which are presumably modulated by the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO). Precipitation from 1979–2009 was recorded daily at three stations along the Elqui Valley. The relationship between the MJO and precipitation is investigated from two perspectives: 1) examining a MJO index (MJOI) based on the actual precipitation events and 2) examining the likelihood of precipitation based on a favorable MJOI. About 80% of the strong precipitation events at the coast in La Serena are related to an active MJO near the central equatorial Pacific. These events are often typified by broad, slow moving synoptic systems in phase with the MJO propagation. Blocking in the far southeast Pacific is associated with precipitation 75% of the time, while deep troughs make up the rest.
A relationship between a MJOI and strong rainfall suggests that, though it could be used as a potential diagnostic, the number of cases where there is a favorable MJOI but no precipitation (i.e., false alarms) limits its utility. Additional criteria such as the Southern Oscillation (SO) and Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) phases were used to reject false alarms. Rejecting cases with positive values of the SO index reduced the number of false alarms from 70% to 58%, leaving about two false alarms for every correctly diagnosed event. The AAO index could not discriminate between false alarms and real cases. While a favorable MJOI increases the likelihood of precipitation in the Elqui Valley, false alarms remain problematic.
Palabras claves: South America; Madden-Julian oscillation; Precipitation; Surface observations; Seasonal forecasting; Intraseasonal variability.
Distribution of Pleuroncodes monodon larvae over the continental shelf of south-central Chile: Field and modeling evidence for partial local retention and transport.
Yannicelli, B., Castro, L., Parada, C., Schneider, W., Colas, F., & Donoso, D.
In situ and modeled spatial distribution of squat lobster (Pleuroncodes monodon) larvae over the continental shelf off south central Chile (35–37°S) was analyzed along with currents and hydrography. We aimed to identify the main larval transport/retention characteristics in the study area, which constitutes the southernmost P. monodon fishing grounds embedded in the Humboldt Current System. We hypothesized that the main contribution to population renewal originates in the two persistent adult aggregations close to the nursery ground that occurs over a continental shelf terrace limited by two submarine canyons. Two extensive bio-physical field campaigns were carried out during the main 2001–2002 upwelling season field data indicated that larvae were released from late austral winter to spring from spots to the north and south of the nursery. Zoea I were found mainly below 50 m depth in southward-flowing waters, whereas older zoea dominated in northward flowing layers above 50 m. Larvae were circumscribed between the coast and the shelf break front and pelagic retention areas were identified over the widest shelf area. Megalopa and juveniles during March, were only found over the nursery area. Individual based simulations coupled to the output of a hydrodynamic model (climatological configuration) for the studied area, showed that the release sites close to the nursery made the largest contribution to recruitment. Sites further north could also contribute to recruitment if hatching occurred later in the upwelling season. The contribution of vertical behavior to larval success was also important, as was the former’s interaction with the site and time of larval release. Our results support the relevance of coastal circulation (affected by topography) on the persistence of P. monodon populations off southern Chile, and the modulation of temporal variability. These results might apply to other abundant species in the area.
Linking Climatic Variability with Spatial Performance in Two Varieties of Quinoa Distributed in a Semi-Arid Zone.
Montecinos, S., Salinas, P., Oses, R., González-Silvestre, L., & Molina-Montenegro, M.
Different crop varieties can respond in different ways to the climatic variations at local scale. Thus, in order to maximize
the yield for a determined crop, the response of different varieties submitted to local climatic conditions should be
assessed. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the ecophysiological responses of two varieties of Quinoa (PRP
and BO78) submitted to different conditions of thermal amplitude. We performed two experiments in both greenhouse
and in 3 sites on experimental-field where were evaluated survival, photochemical efficiency, plant growth and dry
biomass in both varieties and compared them with the mean of the thermal conditions recorded during the last 16 years
in the Coquimbo Region, Chile. Overall, individuals of BO78 showed higher performance in the sites with lower thermal
amplitude than those of PRP. By contrast, in sites with higher thermal amplitude individuals of PRP showed better
survival, physiological performance and biomass and therefore higher performance. Our results suggest that while
BO78 showed an ecotypic strategy, the PRP showed a plastic strategy to maintain higher performance in sites with
moderate and high climatic variability. We consider that under an increase in desertification, semi-arid areas would be
available for stress tolerant crops like Quinoa, but the success for the food security in these regions may depend upon
the variety used.
Palabras claves: Quinoa; Thermal Amplitude; Plasticity; Ecophysiology; Crop Yield
Estimaciones de crecimiento de Haliotis rufescens en cautiverio en el norte de Chile.
Pérez E., Eduardo P. AU - Araya, AndreaTI.
El crecimiento en acuicultura es indicador directo de productividad,permite predecir el desarrollo del cultivo y la cosecha, afecta indirectamente el desempeño de variables tecnológicas y determina el tiempo necesario para obtener individuos de un tamaño específico, lo cual condiciona el beneficio económico de un cultivo. Estas condiciones requieren la toma de datos y descripción adecuada del crecimiento de la especie cultivada. En este trabajo se evalúan tres alternativas de ajuste de parámetros de crecimiento a partir de información recopilada en un centro de cultivo de abalón rojo Haliotis rufescens en Coquimbo, Chile, donde se midieron durante un año individuos de 1,4-4,3 años, por intervalos de tamaño de 15-25, 26-35, 36-45, 46-55 y 56-65mm de longitud. Para analizar la consistencia en la estimación de crecimiento, se utilizaron tres modelos: la ecuación de von Bertalanffy (ECVB), la versión con crecimiento estacionalizado de ECVB y el modelo generalizado de crecimiento de Schnute y Richards. Los tres modelos resultaron ser confiables para longitudes en edades de 1,4-4,3 años, y las curvas de ajuste pasan a través del centro de la nube de puntos. Coincide esta etapa con la fase de crecimiento exponencial de los organismos. Con un criterio estrictamente estadístico la ECVB en su versión estacionalizada es la más ajustada, por una menor suma de cuadrados. Dado que las extrapolaciones hacia edades mayores y menores resultan más exactas con el modelo generalizado de crecimiento, se concluye que éste representó mejor el crecimiento de H. rufescens en las condiciones locales de cultivo.
Bioeconomic effect from the size selection in red abalone intensive culture Haliotis rufescens as a production strategy.
Pérez, E., Araya, A., Araneda, M., & Zúñiga, C.
The variability in growth is a common characteristic in mollusks breeding. Effects rising from the variability in the individual growth rate and the consequent dispersion of sizes in cultivation are important in financial terms. To manage this heterogeneity many firms use size selection, which can happen in two stages: toward the end of the stage of growing, or in the phase of growing of seeds. A bioeconomic model simulating the operation of a firm producing red abalone was implemented in spreadsheets. The firm produces 70 tons yearly. The model was structured in three sub-models. A biological sub-model detailed a batch’s dynamics, in terms of survival and growth, considering individual variation of size around a central value for each age. A technological sub-model described raw materials, the quantity of food and the energy required. Finally, the simulation model is completed with an economic integrated sub-model, where net present value is calculated considering income and costs over the time. Results of the alternative production strategies (with or without selection) are assessed according to: quantity of larvae and necessary spawners to reach the desired level of production; net present value (NPV) and necessary time to recover the investment. The number of larvae was approximately 17 millions larger for the case of the strategy of production with sizes selection and 73% more of available spawners is required for this larger amount of larvae. In the short term, the size-selection strategy increases the production costs at the initial time, compared with the strategy without selection. However, in the long term, this strategy generates greater NPV. The span for investment recovery was shorter for the case of the strategy with size selection and living product (nearly 2,140 days) than frozen (nearly 2,232 days); while without sizes selection a 15-year simulation showed the investment is not recovered. Finally, could be verified that size selection can be an interesting strategy to explore, since it improves the financial result, the same way other more expensive technological changes would.
Palabras claves: Bioeconomic effect, Red abalone, Size selection, Strategy.
Temporal variability of incidental solar radiation and modulating factors in a coastal upwelling area (36°S).
Hernández, K., Yannicelli, B., Montecinos, A., Ramos, M., González, H., & Daneri, G.
In this study, we quantify the annual and synoptic variability of solar radiation (PAR and UVR) for southern-central Chile at ∼36.5°S from 2003 to 2004 and we relate these fluctuations to total ozone concentration, cloudiness, and winds. Data considered approximately 2 years of daily visible PAR (400–700 nm), UVA (400–320 nm), and UVB (280–320 nm). Satellite ozone data were also compared with a 305/340 ratio. On an annual scale, the visible and UV radiation co-varied in phase, with maxima in spring–summer and lower values in autumn–winter. Winds and cloudiness also showed an annual cycle, with predominantly southerly winds and lower cloudiness in summer. On a synoptic scale, solar radiation was coupled with cloudiness and winds, a relationship that is also evidenced over large scale atmospheric circulation. A 3-month lag was observed between solar radiation and ozone annual cycles; the latter peaked in springtime. The 305/340 ratio was a good ozone index over short time scales, showing fluctuations at the same frequencies as ozone and good cross-correlations once the annual cycle was extracted. The spatial–temporal analysis supports the possibility that the local pattern observed might be common for other important upwelling sites affected by the same type of atmospheric variability. Finally, this study showed that solar radiation wavelengths fluctuating at similar frequencies as those of upwelling favorable winds, are likely to be modulating biological processes in the coastal upwelling area off Concepción over short time scales.
Upwelling response to atmospheric coastal jets off central Chile: A modeling study of the October 2000 event.
Renault, L., Dewitte, B., Marchesiello, P., Illig, S., Echevin, V., & Cambon, G., Ramos, M., Astudillo, O., Minnis, P., Ayers, J.K.
The spatial and temporal variability of nearshore winds in eastern boundary current systems affect the oceanic heat balance that drives sea surface temperature changes. In this study, regional atmospheric and oceanic simulations are used to document such processes during an atmospheric coastal jet event off central Chile. The event is well reproduced by the atmospheric model and is associated with the migration of an anomalous anticyclone in the southeastern Pacific region during October 2000. A robust feature of the simulation is a sharp coastal wind dropoff, which is insensitive to model resolution. As expected, the simulated oceanic response is a significant sea surface cooling. A surface heat budget analysis shows that vertical mixing is a major contributor to the cooling tendency both in the jet core area and in the nearshore zone where the magnitude of this term is comparable to the magnitude of vertical advection. Sensitivity experiments show that the oceanic response in the coastal area is sensitive to wind dropoff representation. This is because total upwelling, i.e., the sum of coastal upwelling and Ekman pumping, depends on the scale of wind dropoff. Because the latter is much larger than the upwelling scale, coastal wind dropoff has only a weak positive effect on vertical velocities driven by Ekman pumping but has a strong negative effect on coastal upwelling. Interestingly though, the weakening of coastal winds in the dropoff zone has a larger effect on vertical mixing than on vertical advection, with both effects contributing to a reduction of cooling.
Palabras claves: atmospheric coastal jets; eastern boundary current systems; numerical simulation; ocean/atmosphere interactions; upwelling; wind dropoff
Inter-annual variability of southerly winds in a coastal area of the Atacama Desert: implications for the export of aeolian sediments to the adjacent marine environment.
Flores-Aqueveque, V., Alfaro, S., Caquineau, S., Foret, G., Vargas, G., & Rutllant, J.
The analysis of the aeolian content of marine cores collected off the coast of the Atacama Desert (Mejillones Bay, Chile) suggests that marine sediments can record inter-annual to inter-decadal variations in the regional southerly winds responsible for particle entrainment at the surface of the nearby desert. However, the establishment of a simple and direct correlation between the sediment and wind records is complicated by the difference of time scales between the erosion and accumulation processes. The aim of this work is to: (i) assess the inter-annual variability of the surface winds responsible for the sand movements; and (ii) determine whether the integration over periods of several months completely smoothes the rapid changes in characteristics of the transported and deposited aeolian material. To accomplish this aim, 14 years of 10 m hourly wind speed, measured at the Cerro Moreno (Antofagasta) Airport between 1991 and 2003 and at the Orica Station between 2000 and 2004, were analyzed. For each year, the wind speed statistical distribution can be represented by a combination of two to three Weibull functions. Winds of the lowest Weibull mode are too weak to move the sand grains at the surface of the pampa; this is not the case for the intermediate mode and especially for the highest speed mode which are able to erode the arid surface and transport particles to the bay. In each individual year of the period of study, the highest speed mode only accounted for a limited number of strong erosion events. Quantitative analysis of the distribution of the friction velocities and of their impact on erosion using a saltation model suggests that, although all wind speeds above threshold produce erosion events, values around 0·45 m sec−1 contribute less to the erosion flux. This gap allows separation of the erosion events into low and high saltation modes. The correlation (r = 0·997) between the importance of the third Weibull mode and the extent of higher rate saltation indicates that the inter-annual variability of the erosion at the surface of the pampa, as well as the transport of coarse particles (>100 μm), are directly related to inter-annual variations in the prevalence of the strongest winds. Finally, a transport and deposition model is used to assess the possible impact of the wind inter-annual variability on the deposition flux of mineral particles in the bay. The results suggest that inter-annual differences in the wind speed distributions have a quantifiable effect on the intensity and size-distribution of this deposition flux. This observation suggests that a detailed analysis of the sediment cores collected from the bay could be used for reconstructing the inter-annual variability of past winds.
Palabras claves: Atacama Desert; dust transport and deposition; wind erosion; wind variability.
Lizards on Ice: Evidence for Multiple Refugia in Liolaemus pictus (Liolaemidae) during the Last Glacial Maximum in the Southern Andean Beech Forests.
Vera-Escalona, I., D'Elía, G., Gouin, N., Fontanella, F., Muñoz-Mendoza, C., Sites, J., & Victoriano, P.
Historical climate changes and orogenesis are two important factors that have shaped intraspecific biodiversity patterns worldwide. Although southern South America has experienced such complex events, there is a paucity of studies examining the effects on intraspecific diversification in this part of the world. Liolaemus pictus is the southernmost distributed lizard in the Chilean temperate forest, whose genetic structure has likely been influenced by Pleistocene glaciations. We conducted a phylogeographic study of L. pictus in Chile and Argentina based on one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes recovering two strongly divergent groups, Northern and Southern clades. The first group is distributed from the northernmost limit of the species to the Araucanía region while the second group is distributed throughout the Andes and the Chiloé archipelago in Southern Chile. Our results suggest that L. pictus originated 751 Kya, with divergence between the two clades occurring in the late Pleistocene. Demographic reconstructions for the Northern and Southern clades indicate a decrease in effective population sizes likely associated with Pleistocene glaciations. Surprisingly, patterns of genetic variation, clades age and historical gene flow in populations distributed within the limits of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are not explained by recent colonization. We propose an “intra-Andean multiple refuge” hypothesis, along with the classical refuge hypothesis previously proposed for the biota of the Chilean Coastal range and Eastern Andean Cordillera. Our hypothesis is supported by niche modelling analysis suggesting the persistence of fragments of suitable habitat for the species within the limits of the LGM ice shield. This type of refuge hypothesis is proposed for the first time for an ectothermic species.
Palabras claves: Haplotypes, Phylogeography, Gene flow, Chile (country), Phylogenetic analysis, Population genetics, Mitochondrial DNA, Mitochondria.