Genotype by environment interactions, heritabilities and genetic correlations for productive traits of Haliotis rufescens
Farías, W., Winkler, F., & Brokordt, K.
A critical aspect of a selective breeding program is whether responses of traits of interest are similar in different environments. The magnitude of the genotype by environment interaction (GEI) together with heritability (h2) accounts for this aspect. Despite the economic significance of abalones and the interest in genetic improvement programs for their cultivation, only one previous study has reported GEI estimations for this group of mollusks. The objective of the present study was to estimate h2 and the existence of GEI for growth traits of Haliotis rufescens cultivated in Chilean farms with different environmental and management conditions. A total of 2 cohorts (2007 and 2009) of 50 and 42 families of full sibs (FS), respectively, were used. Replicates of each FS family of the 2007 cohort were distributed in two farms in the northern region of the country and were evaluated after 1 and 2 years of cultivation. For the 2009 cohort, replicates of each family were distributed in a farm in the northern region and a farm in the southern region of the country. The estimated h2 values were significant for all traits, with the length and width of the shell and total weight varying primarily by cohort between 0.22–0.62, 0.16–0.58 and 0.40–0.53, respectively. The genetic correlations (rG) between traits were all higher than 0.82. The expected correlated responses for improving the total weight using the shell length as a selection criterion predict a selection gain (14–51%) similar to what would be obtained by selecting directly for weight (16–51%) in all environments examined. Thus, indirect selection by shell length and the direct use of total weight as a selection criterion would yield similar effects in terms of the increase in weight. High rG, not significantly different from 1, were observed for the analyzed traits between replicates of the families in any of the farms compared, both within the northern region and between the northern and southern regions of the country. These high rG were indicative of non-significant GEI for the analyzed traits. Therefore, results suggest that one selective breeding program could provide improved red abalone for the industry in Chile with consistent results between farms located in different environments.
Palabras claves: Abalone, Aquaculture, Breeding, Heritability, Genetic correlation, Genotype by environment interaction
Future snow? A spatial-probabilistic assessment of the extraordinarily low snowpacks of 2014 and 2015 in the Oregon Cascades
Sproles, E., Roth, T., & Nolin, A.
In the Pacific Northwest, USA, the extraordinarily low snowpacks of winters 2013–2014 and 2014–2015 stressed regional water resources and the socialenvironmental system. We introduce two new approaches to better understand how seasonal snow water storage during these two winters would compare to snow water storage under warmer climate conditions. The first approach calculates a spatial-probabilistic metric representing the likelihood that the snow water storage of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015 would occur under +2◦C perturbed climate conditions. We computed snow water storage (basin-wide and across elevations) and the ratio of snow water equivalent to cumulative precipitation (across elevations) for the McKenzie River basin (3041 km2), a major tributary to the Willamette River in Oregon, USA. We applied these computations to calculate the occurrence probability for similarly low snow water storage under climate warming. Results suggest that, relative to +2
◦C conditions, basin-wide snow water storage during winter 2013–2014 would be above average, while that of winter 2014–2015 would be far below average. Snow water storage on 1 April corresponds to a 42 % (2013–2014) and 92 % (2014–2015) probability of being met or exceeded in any given year. The second approach introduces the concept of snow analogs to improve the anticipatory capacity of climate change impacts on snow-derived water resources. The use of a spatial-probabilistic approach and snow analogs provide new methods of assessing basin-wide snow water storage in a non-stationary climate and are readily applicable in other snow-dominated watersheds.
Surface water quality in a sulfide mineral-rich arid zone in North-Central Chile: Learning from a complex past, addressing an uncertain future
Flores, M., Núñez, J., Oyarzún, J., Freixas, G., Maturana, H., & Oyarzún, R.
This study presents an analysis of up to 30 years of hydrological variables and selected water quality parameters (pH, SO4, Fe, Cu, and As) in the upper area of the Elqui River basin in North‐Central Chile. A correlation analysis determined statistically significant positive relationship for SO4‐Cu, Fe‐As, and Fe‐Cu. In terms of historical behaviour, no statistically significant
trends were detected for precipitation or temperature. In contrast, for flow, there is an overall decreasing pattern for the entire area of study, although only in one case this trend was statistically significant. Along with the aforementioned analysis, a characterization of the flow‐water quality relationships is considered for the time period analyzed. Although erratic behaviours were confirmed, a negative (i.e., inverse) flow‐concentration relationship was identified for SO4, a positive (i.e., direct) relationship for Fe, and undefined relationships for As and Cu were obtained.
From these analyses and based on previous studies on projections regarding climate change for the Andean region, and in particular for the upper Elqui zone, an estimation of the possible effects of the change in water regimes on water quality in the area of study is developed. It is likely that a decrease in surface flow, as a consequence of climate change could translate into improvements in water quality in terms of Fe and eventually As and Cu, but into an impairment in the case of
SO4. In any case, this is a complex situation that demands special attention in the face of industrial activities that could be developed in tributaries like the Claro River, which currently play an important role in depurating or diluting contaminants in the waters of the Elqui River. Finally, it should be noted that this study addresses an issue that goes beyond the local interest and could be used as a reference to compare other transitional environments containing sulphide ores or areas of hydrothermal alterations, which are considered to be highly vulnerable to climate change and variability.
Palabras claves: acid rock drainage, Andean river, arid zone, Coquimbo region
Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on locomotion and the repeatability of lateralization in a keystone marine mollusc
Domenici, P., Torres, R., & Manríquez, P.
Recent work has shown that the behaviour of marine organisms can be affected by elevated PCO2 , although little is known about the effect of multiple stressors. We therefore investigated the effect of elevated PCO2 and temperature on locomotion and behaviour during prey searching in the marine gastropod Concholepas concholepas, a predator characteristic of the southeastern Pacific coast. Movement duration, decision time, route finding and lateralization were measured using a T-maze tank with a prey positioned behind a barrier. Four treatments, representing present day and near-future scenarios of ocean acidification and warming were used in rearing the individuals for 6 months. Regardless of the treatment, no significant differences were found in relative and absolute lateralization before and after exposure for 6 months. However, relative lateralization was not repeatable for animals tested after 6 months at elevated PCO2 at both experimental temperatures, whereas it was repeatable in individuals kept at the present day level of PCO2. We suggest that these effects may be related to a behavioural malfunction caused by elevated PCO2. Movement duration, decision time and route finding were not repeatable. However, movement duration and decision time increased and route finding decreased in elevated PCO2 (at 15°C), suggesting that elevated PCO2 has negative effects on the locomotor and sensory performance of C. concholepas in the presence of a prey odour, thereby decreasing their ability to forage efficiently.
Palabras claves: Ocean acidification, Temperature, Gastropod locomotion, Lateralization, Route finding, Concholepas concholepas.
Effects of ocean warming and acidification on the early benthic ontogeny of an ecologically and economically important echinoderm
Manríquez, P., Torres, R., Matson, P., Lee, M., Jara, M., & Seguel, M., Sepúlveda, F., Pereira, L.
The sea urchin Loxechinus albus is a benthic shallow water coastal herbivore and an exploited natural resource. This study evaluated the consequences of projected near-future ocean acidification (OA) and warming (OW) for small juveniles of this species. Individuals were exposed for 7 mo to contrasting pCO2 (~400 and 1200 µatm) and temperature (~16 and 19°C) levels. We compared grazing rates during the first 2 mo of rearing. After an additional period (2 to 7 mo), we compared body size change (in terms of diameter, and wet and buoyant weight), self-righting, dislodgement resistance, foraging speeds, test dissolution rate, oxygen consumption and strength of structural integrity. Regardless of the temperature, urchins reared under present-day pCO2 grazed preferentially on algae also reared under present-day pCO2 conditions. However, urchins reared under elevated pCO2 at both temperatures exhibited no grazing preference. Other traits such as growth rate in terms of diameter, vertical foraging speed and tenacity were not affected significantly by pCO2, temperature and the interaction between them. However, growth rate in terms of wet weight, metabolism and dissolution rate of empty urchin tests was significantly affected by temperature and pCO2 but not by the interaction between them. At 16°C, self-righting was faster for individuals reared at elevated pCO2 but no differences were found at 19°C. We conclude that OA and OW may disrupt some early benthic ontogenetic traits of this species and thus have negative ecological and economic consequences. However, most traits will be not threated by the 2 investigated stressors.
Palabras claves: Growth · Grazing rate · Tenacity · Structural integrity · Self-righting · Foraging speed · Loxechinus albus
Cryoconite hole connectivity on the Wright Lower Glacier, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica.
MacDonell, S., Sharp, M., & Fitzsimons, S.
Cryoconite holes can be important sources and stores of water and nutrients on cold and polythermal glaciers, and they provide a habitat for various forms of biota. Understanding the hydrological connectivity of cryoconite holes may be the key to understanding the transport of nutrients and biological material to the proglacial areas of such glaciers. This paper aims to characterize and explain spatial variability in the connectivity of ice-lidded cryoconite holes on a small, piedmont glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys through geochemical analysis of cryoconite hole waters. Solute concentrations in both surface and near-surface ice and cryoconite holes, vary greatly along the glacier centerline, and all sample types displayed similar spatial patterns of variability. Using chloride as a tracer, we estimated variations in cryoconite hole connectivity along the glacier centerline. We found that a previously used mass transfer method did not provide reliable estimates of the time period for which cryoconite hole waters had been isolated from the atmosphere. We attribute this to spatial variability in both the chloride content of the surface ice and surface ablation rates. The approach may, however, be used to qualitatively characterize spatial variations in the hydrological connectivity of the cryoconite holes. These results also suggest that ice-lidded cryoconite holes are never truly isolated from the near-surface drainage system.
Palabras claves: cryoconite hole, glacier hydrology, glaciochemistry, supraglacial hydrology.
Insight into the messenger role of reactive oxygen intermediates in immunostimulated hemocytes from the scallop Argopecten purpuratus.
Oyanedel, D., Gonzalez, R., Brokordt, K., Schmitt, P., & Mercado, L.
Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) are metabolites produced by aerobic cells which have been linked to oxidative stress. Evidence reported in vertebrates indicates that ROI can also act as messengers in a variety of cellular signaling pathways, including those involved in innate immunity. In a recent study, an inhibitor of NF-kB transcription factors was identified in the scallop Argopecten purpuratus, and its functional characterization suggested that it may regulate the expression of the big defensin antimicrobial peptide ApBD1. In order to give new insights into the messenger role of ROI in the immune response of bivalve mollusks, the effect of ROI production on gene transcription of ApBD1 was assessed in A. purpuratus. The results showed that 48 h-cultured hemocytes were able to display phagocytic activity and ROI production in response to the β-glucan zymosan. The immune stimulation also induced the transcription of ApBD1, which was upregulated in cultured hemocytes. After neutralizing the ROI produced by the stimulated hemocytes with the antioxidant trolox, the transcription of ApBD1 was reduced near to base levels. The results suggest a potential messenger role of intracellular ROI on the regulation of ApBD1 transcription during the immune response of scallops.
Palabras claves: Reactive oxygen intermediates; Antimicrobial peptide; Big defensin; Immune regulation; Invertebrate immunity; Scallop.
Coastal Clouds at the Eastern Margin of the Southeast Pacific: Climatology and Trends.
Muñoz, R. C., Quintana, J., Falvey, M. J., Rutllant, J. A., & Garreaud, R.
The climatology and recent trends of low-level coastal clouds at three sites along the northern Chilean coast (18.3°–23.4°S) are documented based upon up to 45 years of hourly observations of cloud type, coverage, and heights. Consistent with the subtropical location, cloud types are dominated by stratocumuli having greatest coverage (>7 oktas) and smaller heights (600–750 m) during the nighttime of austral winter and spring. Meridionally, nighttime cloud fraction and cloud-base heights increase from south to north. Long-term trends in mean cloud cover are observed at all sites albeit with a seasonal modulation, with increasing (decreasing) coverage in the spring (fall). Consistent trend patterns are also observed in independent sunshine hour measurements at the same sites. Cloud heights show negative trends of about 100 m decade−1 (1995–2010), although the onset time of this tendency differs between sites. The positive cloud fraction trends during the cloudy season reported here disagree with previous studies, with discrepancies attributed to differences in datasets used or to methodological differences in data analysis. The cloud-base height tendency, together with a less rapid lowering of the subsidence inversion base height, suggests a deepening of the coastal cloud layer. While consistent with the tendency toward greater low-level cloud cover and the known cooling of the marine boundary layer in this region, these tendencies are at odds with a drying trend of the near-surface air documented here as well. Assessing whether this intriguing result is caused by physical factors or by limitations of the data demands more detailed observations, some of which are currently under way.
Palabras claves: Geographic location/entity; Coastlines; South America; Circulation/ Dynamics; Cloud cover; Atm/Ocean Structure/ Phenomena; Boundary layer; Physical Meteorology and Climatology; Coastal meteorology; Variability; Trends.
Historical dimensions of population structure in a continuously distributed marine species: The case of the endemic Chilean dolphin.
Pérez-Alvarez, M. J., Olavarría, C., Moraga, R., Baker, C. S., Hamner, R. M., & Poulin, E.
The complementarity of historical and contemporary processes contributes to understanding the genetic structure of continuously distributed marine species with high dispersal capabilities. Cephalorhynchus eutropia, has a continuous coastal distribution with strong genetic differentiation identified by nuclear DNA markers. We explored the historical dimension of this genetic differentiation between northern and southern populations to evaluate phylogeographic structure. Additionally, we conducted mtDNA and microsatellite analyses to detect past and recent demographic changes. The southern population was characterized by lower genetic diversity with a signal of population expansion, likely associated with ice retreat and habitat extension after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In contrast, structure within the northern population was more consistent with stable historical population size. Approximate Bayesian Computation analyses suggested that during the LGM, C. eutropia persisted in the northern area; while the south was colonized by dispersal ~11,000 years ago followed by population expansion. This study shows that Chilean dolphin population structure is consistent with predictions from the Expansion-Contraction biogeographic model, with a poleward post-glacial shift revealed in current genetic structure. The results also confirm the validity of the population units previously identified, demonstrating their historical origin and highlighting the utility of integrating genetic markers with different temporal scale resolutions.
Palabras claves: Evolutionary genetics; Molecular ecology; Population genetics.
Modelling the hydrological response of debris‐free and debris‐covered glaciers to present climatic conditions in the semiarid Andes of central Chile.
Ayala, A., Pellicciotti, F., MacDonell, S., McPhee, J., Vivero, S., Campos, C., & Egli, P.
We apply the process-based, distributed TOPKAPI-ETH glacio-hydrological model to a glacierized catchment (19% glacierized) in the semiarid Andes of central Chile. The semiarid Andes provides vital freshwater resources to valleys in Chile and Argentina, but only few glacio-hydrological modelling studies have been conducted, and its dominant hydrological processes remain poorly understood. The catchment contains two debris-free glaciers reaching down to 3900 m asl (Bello and Yeso glaciers) and one debris-covered avalanche-fed glacier reaching to 3200 m asl (Piramide Glacier). Our main objective is to compare the mass balance and runoff contributions of both glacier types under current climatic conditions. We use a unique dataset of field measurements collected over two ablation seasons combined with the distributed TOPKAPI-ETH model that includes physically oriented parameterizations of snow and ice ablation, gravitational distribution of snow, snow albedo evolution and the ablation of debris-covered ice. Model outputs indicate that while the mass balance of Bello and Yeso glaciers is mostly explained by temperature gradients, the Piramide Glacier mass balance is governed by debris thickness and avalanches and has a clear non-linear profile with elevation as a result. Despite the thermal insulation effect of the debris cover, the mass balance and contribution to runoff from debris-free and debris-covered glaciers are similar in magnitude, mainly because of elevation differences. However, runoff contributions are distinct in time and seasonality with ice melt starting approximately four weeks earlier from the debris-covered glacier, what is of relevance for water resources management. At the catchment scale, snowmelt is the dominant contributor to runoff during both years. However, during the driest year of our simulations, ice melt contributes 42 ± 8% and 67 ± 6% of the annual and summer runoff, respectively. Sensitivity analyses show that runoff is most sensitive to temperature and precipitation gradients, melt factors and debris cover thickness. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.