Conservación de la biodiversidad en Chile: Nuevos desafíos y oportunidades en ecosistemas terrestres y marinos costeros
Jorquera-Jaramillo, C., Vega, J., Aburto, J., Martínez-Tillería, K., F. Leon, M., & A. Pérez, M., Gaymer, C.F., & Squeo, F.A.
La pérdida de la biodiversidad producida por el crecimiento demográfico, la demanda por recursos y la actividad productiva es contradictoria con el reconocimiento de su importancia. En ecosistemas terrestres, el Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas del Estado (SNASPE) contiene cerca del 19 % del territorio de Chile continental; aunque no representa todos los ecosistemas con especies amenazadas, puede ser complementado implementando nuevas áreas protegidas públicas (AP) y privadas (APP). El desarrollo de áreas marinas protegidas (AMP) es incipiente, y algunas iniciativas comparten la responsabilidad de conservación con los usuarios locales. En Chile, un conjunto de reglamentos, normas legales y tratados internacionales promueven distintas oportunidades de conservación en ecosistemas terrestres y marinos costeros, de las cuales emergen nuevos desafíos. Entre estos destacan, estandarizar la clasificación de especies según categorías de conservación en un protocolo internacional y optimizar las metodologías para seleccionar áreas prioritarias, ambos criterios indispensables para decidir qué y dónde conservar. Otro desafío es integrar el valor intrínseco de la biodiversidad con los servicios ecosistémicos que presta para instaurar una cultura participativa. Esto mejoraría la efectividad de las distintas estrategias de protección y uso sustentable de la biodiversidad al incorporar la educación y la participación ciudadana desde una perspectiva biocultural. La educación fomenta la conservación de la naturaleza al hacernos conscientes de nuestro entorno; mientras que la participación involucra a los ciudadanos como un actor más en la toma de decisiones, procurando la aplicación efectiva de las estrategias de conservación de la biodiversidad.
Palabras claves: áreas marinas protegidas, áreas silvestres protegidas, conservación privada, participación ciudadana.
Referencia APA: Jorquera-Jaramillo, C., Vega, J., Aburto, J., Martínez-Tillería, K., F. Leon, M., & A. Pérez, M., Gaymer, C.F., & Squeo, F.A. (2012). Conservación de la biodiversidad en Chile: Nuevos desafíos y oportunidades en ecosistemas terrestres y marinos costeros. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 85(3), 267-280.
Geochemistry of trace metals in shelf sediments affected by seasonal and permanent low oxygen conditions off central Chile, SE Pacific (∼36°S).
Muñoz, P., Dezileau, L., Cardenas, L., Sellanes, J., Lange, C., & Inostroza, J. et al.
Trace metals (Cd, U, Co, Ni, Cu, Ba, Fe, Mn), total organic carbon (TOC) and C and N stable isotope signatures (δ13C and δ15N) were determined in short sediments cores from the inner and outer shelf off Concepción, Chile (∼36°S). The objectives were to establish the effect of environmental conditions on trace metal distributions at two shelf sites, one affected by seasonal oxygenation and the other by permanent low oxygen conditions due to the presence of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). We evaluate trace metals as proxies of past changes in primary productivity and the bottom water oxygen regime. Concentrations of pore water sulfides and NH4+ were also measured as indicators of the main diagenetic pathways at each site. Our results for the inner shelf (seasonal suboxia) suggest that the oxidative state of the sediments responds to seasonal pulses of organic matter and that seasonal oxygenation develops during high and low primary productivity in the water column. Here, positive fluxes (to the water column) estimated from pore water concentrations of several elements were observed (Ba, Co, Ni, Fe and Mn). The less reduced environment at this site produces authigenic enrichment of Cu associated with the formation of oxides in the oxic surface sediment layer, and the reduction of U within deeper sediment sections occur consistently with negative estimated pore water fluxes. In the outer shelf sediments (permanent suboxia, OMZ site), negative fluxes (to the sediment) were estimated for all elements, but these sediments showed authigenic enrichments only for Cd, Cu and U. The short oxygenation period during the winter season did not affect the accumulation of these metals on the shelf. The distribution of Cu, Cd and U have been preserved within the sediments and the authigenic accumulation rates estimated showed a decrease from the deep sections of the core to the surface sediments. This could be explained by a gradual decrease in the strength of the OMZ in the last 100 years, in combination with periods of strong oxygenations during El Niño events.
Palabras claves: Trace metals; Sediments; Oxygen minimum zone; Organic carbon; SE Pacific; Concepción shelf.
Referencia APA: : Muñoz, P., Dezileau, L., Cardenas, L., Sellanes, J., Lange, C., & Inostroza, J. et al. (2012). Geochemistry of trace metals in shelf sediments affected by seasonal and permanent low oxygen conditions off central Chile, SE Pacific (∼36°S). Continental Shelf Research, 33, 51-68.
Mining of EST-SSR from 454 pyrosequencing in the surf clam Mesodesma donacium (Lamark, 1818).
Aguilar-Espinoza, A., Guzmán-Riffo, B., Haye, P., & Gallardo-Escárate, C.
Novel simple sequence repeats (SSR) were identified from 454 transcriptome pyrosequencing ESTs in the surf clam Mesodesma donacium. From 7,734 ESTs annotated with SSR motives, 75 putative EST-SSRs were selected according their repetitive DNA sequence and functional annotation (Gene ontology), of these, 15 were characterized on 45 individuals of two wild populations located in two different biogeographic transition zones of the coast of Chile (30 and 42°S). Most loci were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, and the polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.243 to 0.634. Pairwise Fst between sampled populations was estimated in 0.478. These EST-SSR markers promise to be useful for future management strategies of this overexploited species.
Palabras claves: Pyrosequencing 454, Expressed sequence tag (EST), Microsatellite, Mesodesma donacium
Referencia APA: Aguilar-Espinoza, A., Guzmán-Riffo, B., Haye, P., & Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2012). Mining of EST-SSR from 454 pyrosequencing in the surf clam Mesodesma donacium (Lamark, 1818). Conservation Genet Resour, 4(4), 829-832.
The marine brooder Excirolana braziliensis (Crustacea: Isopoda) is also a complex of cryptic species on the coast of Chile.
Varela, A. & Haye, P.
Speciation is a direct consequence of isolated populations in taxa with low dispersal potential. The brooding crustacean Excirolana braziliensis, with a presumably wide geographic range of distribution (~16° N-41° S in the Pacific and ~19° N-35° S in the Atlantic), has been detected to correspond to cryptic species on the coast of Panama. Latitudinal variations in reproductive features in E. braziliensis have been attributed to phenotypic plasticity, however, the differences may be the result of divergent populations. Considering that the taxon has been reported to be a complex of cryptic species in other geographic areas and given the phenotypic differences detected along its distribution range, we hypothesized that E. braziliensis is a complex of species in the coast of Chile. We used partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences from 132 individuals with the diagnostic morphology of E. braziliensis collected along ~2200 km of coast to determine the genetic structure of E. braziliensis. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses showed three distinct clades with 14 to 19 % of genetic divergence and high values of genetic differentiation. Intra and inter-clade divergence revealed the existence of a species complex of E. braziliensis on the coast of Chile, supporting growing evidence of the high abundance of cryptic species in marine invertebrate taxa.
Palabras claves: cryptic species, genetic differentiation, genetic distance, marine peracarids, phylogenetics.
Referencia APA: Varela, A. & Haye, P. (2012). The marine brooder Excirolana braziliensis (Crustacea: Isopoda) is also a complex of cryptic species on the coast of Chile. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 85(4), 495-502.
Effect of two temperatures on ammonia excretion rates of Seriolella violacea (Palm fish) juveniles under rearing conditions.
Nerici, C., Silva, A., & Merino, G.
Nitrogenous compounds can be toxic to aquatic animals, especially when they are reared for production purposes at high stocking densities. Seriolella violacea is a pelagic fish, native from the easterly South Pacific Ocean. This species has shown desirable behavioral and metabolic characteristics under captivity conditions, which leaded the Marine Fish Laboratory from the UCN to increase its efforts on the research and development to validate S. violacea as a new aquaculture option. Therefore, the objective of this study is to determine the excretion rates of palm fish juveniles weighing 300–500 g at two different temperatures: 14 °C and 18 °C. Total ammonia as nitrogen (TAN) excreted was 4.4 ± 0.9 and 7.1 ± 1.9 mg TAN/kg fish/h for 14 °C and 18 °C respectively. The experiments were carried out in a recirculating system operating as a farm-like situation. Tests were performed in 1000 L rearing tanks operating as open respirometers. The results of the present study indicate that TAN excretion rates on S. violacea juveniles, is temperature dependent. Data obtained in these experiments are valuable information for the engineering design of land based aquaculture systems for palm fish.
Palabras claves: Seriolella violacea; Excretion rates; Ammonia; Recirculating aquaculture system; Water quality
Referencia APA: Nerici, C., Silva, A., & Merino, G. (2012). Effect of two temperatures on ammonia excretion rates of Seriolella violacea (Palm fish) juveniles under rearing conditions. Aquacultural Engineering, 46, 47-52.
Floating Seaweeds and Their Communities.
Rothäusler, E., Gutow, L., & Thiel, M.
A wide diversity of floating seaweeds is found in temperate and subpolar regions of the world’s oceans where sea surface currents and winds determine their traveling velocities and directions. The importance of floating seaweeds as dispersal agents for associated organisms and for the algae themselves varies depending on the supply from benthic source populations and on their persistence at the sea surface. Persistence of floating algae depends on water temperature, grazing activity, epifaunal load, and, to a lesser extent, on prevailing irradiance conditions. In temperate regions, persistence of floating algae is primarily limited by warm sea surface temperatures and high densities of motile and sessile epifauna whereas at higher latitudes algae can successfully compensate grazer-induced tissue loss by continuous growth at the prevailing low water temperatures. Accordingly, floating seaweeds can bridge large oceanic distances especially at high latitudes allowing for connectivity among distant benthic populations of algae and associated rafters.
Referencia APA: Rothäusler, E., Gutow, L., & Thiel, M. (2012). Floating Seaweeds and Their Communities. Ecological Studies, 359-380.
Authentication of commercialized crab-meat in Chile using DNA Barcoding.
Haye, P., Segovia, N., Vera, R., Gallardo, M., & Gallardo-Escárate, C.
Authentication of commercialized marine products has become a market priority. Crustaceans are benthic marine resources highly exploited in Chile. Brachyuran crabs are of particular interest and in Chile are commercialized with different processing and presentations. Generally, Chilean brachyuran crab-meat commercial packages do not include taxonomic information, which in addition to the loss of diagnostic characters during the processing, impedes the identification of species being commercialized. The goal of this study was to determine which brachyuran species are being commercialized in the Chilean market using DNA Barcoding and phylogenetic analysis. For authentication of commercial crab-meat and DNA Barcoding a partial sequence of the Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) gene of seven commercialized brachyuran species in Chile were used. For authentication, samples were obtained from seven commercial formats available on the local market in Coquimbo, Chile. Most commercial packages contained more than one species of crab. The Species detected in order of frequency are Metacarcinus edwardsii, Romaleon polyodon, Cancer porteri, Cancer plebejus, and Homalaspis plana. Mislabeling was detected in one of the commercial formats that declared including meat from Cancer species. The procedure presented herein, based on standard DNA Barcoding as well as phylogenetic analyses, can be used for the normative control of crab-meat processed products.
Palabras claves: Food authentication; DNA Barcoding; Crab meat; Species identification; Mislabeling; Conservation genetics
Referencia APA: Haye, P., Segovia, N., Vera, R., Gallardo, M., & Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2012). Authentication of commercialized crab-meat in Chile using DNA Barcoding. Food Control, 25(1), 239-244.
Genetic signatures of rafting dispersal in algal-dwelling brooders Limnoria spp. (Isopoda) along the SE Pacific (Chile).
Haye, P., Varela, A., & Thiel, M.
ABSTRACT: Brooding marine isopods of the genus Limnoria inhabit and feed on kelp holdfasts and wood. These substrata have high floating potential, making these species ideal organisms to study the effects of rafting-mediated connectivity on the population structure of brooders living on rafting substrata. It is hypothesized that rafting leaves particular genetic signatures such as low differentiation among distant local populations and absence of isolation by distance (IBD) at a macro-geographic scale (thousands of km). Using cytochrome oxidase I (COI) sequences, we tested the effects of rafting-mediated gene flow with respect to genetic differentiation on L. quadripunctata (from wood and also the holdfasts of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera) and L. chilensis (mainly from the bull kelp Durvillaea antarctica) sampled across 2400 km of the Chilean coast. Analyses of COI data for both species indicated low differentiation between distant locations along the Chilean coast and lack of IBD, bearing the expected genetic signatures of rafting dispersal. Phylogenetic analyses were performed with COI and the nuclear gene 28S to place the genetic diversity of Chilean Limnoria spp. into a wider geographical context. Both markers revealed that L. quadripunctata from Chile is a sister clade to other Limnoria spp. analyzed (L. chilensis, L. segnis, and L. stephenseni), which mainly inhabit D. antarctica. L. chilensis from Chile and subantarctic islands form a tight monophyletic group. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses show that along the studied area, L. quadripunctata and L. chilensis have the genetic signatures of relatively recent or ongoing rafting.
Palabras claves: Peracarids, Rafting, Biogeography, Mitochondrial DNA, COI, 28S, Phylogeny, Phylogeography
Referencia APA: Haye, P., Varela, A., & Thiel, M. (2012). Genetic signatures of rafting dispersal in algal-dwelling brooders Limnoria spp. (Isopoda) along the SE Pacific (Chile). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 455, 111-122.
Herbivorous amphipods inhabit protective microhabitats within thalli of giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera.
Gutow, L., Long, J., Cerda, O., Hinojosa, I., Rothäusler, E., Tala, F., & Thiel, M.
Many small marine herbivores utilize specific algal hosts, but the ultimate factors that shape host selection are not well understood. For example, the use of particular microhabitats within algal hosts and the functional role of these microhabitats have received little attention, especially in large algae such as kelps. We studied microhabitat use of the herbivorous amphipod Peramphithoe femorata that inhabits nest-like domiciles on the blades of giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera. The vertical position of nest-bearing blades along the stipe of the algal thallus and the position of the nests within the lateral blades of M. pyrifera were surveyed in two kelp forests in northern-central Chile. Additionally, we conducted laboratory and field experiments to unravel the mechanisms driving the observed distributions. Peramphithoe femorata nests were predominantly built on the distal blade tips in apical sections of the stipes. Within-blade and within-stipe feeding preferences of P. femorata did not explain the amphipod distribution. Amphipods did not consistently select distal over proximal blade sections in habitat choice experiments. Mortality of tethered amphipods without nests was higher at the seafloor than at the sea surface in the field. Nests mitigated mortality of tethered amphipods, especially at the seafloor. Thus, protective microhabitats within thalli of large kelp species can substantially enhance survival of small marine herbivores. Our results suggest that differential survival from predation might be more important than food preferences in determining the microhabitat distribution of these herbivores.
Referencia APA: Gutow, L., Long, J., Cerda, O., Hinojosa, I., Rothäusler, E., Tala, F., & Thiel, M. (2012). Herbivorous amphipods inhabit protective microhabitats within thalli of giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera. Marine Biology, 159(1), 141-149.
Gene expression analysis in Mytilus chilensis populations reveals local patterns associated with ocean environmental conditions.
Núñez-Acuña, G., Tapia, F., Haye, P., & Gallardo-Escárate, C.
Marine ecosystems involve relationships between genomic interactions of marine populations with shared biogeographic ranges and the environmental conditions. These relationships, studied mainly through neutral DNA markers, are not always consistent with actual biogeographic patterns or the evolutionary history of marine species. In addition, increased information at functional genomic level from non-model species allows the study of adaptive responses in marine populations. This work reports local transcriptomic patterns in populations of the mussel Mytilus chilensis and their correspondence with oceanographic variability in southern Chile. Analysis of gene expression patterns was conducted through qPCR of seven candidate genes involved in the response to environmental stress (HSP70, HSP90), iron metabolism (Ferritin), pathogens (Mytilin B, Defensin) and oxidative stress (SOD-CuZn, Catalase) in at five study sites located in southern Chile, from Valdivia (39°56′S–73°36′W) to Melinka (43°52′S–73°44′W). Multivariate and correlation analyses were used to assess the relationship between levels of individual gene expression and site features characterized using satellite data on surface temperature, chlorophyll concentration and total suspended sediments. Two main groups of sites with differential patterns of gene expression were identified. Individuals exposed to higher temperatures showed an overexpression of HSP70, HSP90 and Ferritin genes. The expression of SOD-CuZn and Catalase was correlated with local chlorophyll-a (i.e. food availability for mussels), although with opposite correlations. In addition, Mytilin B showed higher levels of expression in areas with higher freshwater influence. Patterns of gene expression across the region of interest suggest that spatial variability in environmental conditions induce phenotypic changes in different populations of the same mussel species. In addition, the analysis of expression patterns in candidate genes can reveal local patterns in populations where other molecular markers show no genetic structure.
Palabras claves: Gene expression; Mytilus chilensis; Adaptative response; Environmental stress; Thermal tolerance; Sea surface temperature
Referencia APA: Núñez-Acuña, G., Tapia, F., Haye, P., & Gallardo-Escárate, C. (2012). Gene expression analysis in Mytilus chilensis populations reveals local patterns associated with ocean environmental conditions. Journal Of Experimental Marine Biology And Ecology, 420-421, 56-64.
Testing sustainable management in Northern Chile: harvesting Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales). A case study.
Borras-Chavez, R., Edwards, M., & Vásquez, J.
Kelp harvesting in northern Chile is managed by local fishermen and is part of an organized industry. However, the lack of standardized harvesting protocols has made regulation difficult. This, in combination with the impacts of oceanographic disturbances has resulted in some kelp populations being considerably reduced during the last decade. Consequently, harvest methods that maintain kelp resources are sorely needed if harvesting is to remain a viable industry in Chile. Here, experiments were done to identify sustainable methods for harvesting Macrocystis pyrifera along the coast of northern Chile. Three methods were compared with regard to their impacts on kelp populations; one that involves extracting half of the fronds from each individual in a population, one that involves extracting all the fronds from half of the individuals in a population, and a third that involves extracting all the fronds from all of the individuals in a population (i.e., the method currently used). Following this, populations were evaluated over a 2-month period to monitor re-growth of the remaining individuals and recruitment of new individuals, as well as changes in understory algal diversity and herbivore abundance. Our results indicate that removing half of the fronds from each individual in a population was the best method for maintaining the resource for future harvest because, it (1) maintains rapid growth of new fronds on the harvested individuals, (2) promotes recruitment of new individuals, and (3) reduces herbivore densities through physical abrasion. Consequently, this method is recommended for future harvesting of M. pyrifera in Northern Chile.
Palabras claves: EcologyKelp, harvesting, Macrocystis, Phaeophyta, Sustainability
Referencia APA: Borras-Chavez, R., Edwards, M., & Vásquez, J. (2012). Testing sustainable management in Northern Chile: harvesting Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales). A case study. J Appl Phycol, 24(6), 1655-1665.
Asociacion del color de la concha de reproductores de Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819) con la supervivencia, crecimiento y desarrollo larval de sus progenies.
Garcia, R. & Winkler, F.
Las conchas de moluscos bivalvos marinos son extremadamente diversas en sus patrones de pigmentación y riqueza de colores. Tal diversidad se debe a factores ambientales y genéticos. En bivalvos marinos adultos, individuos con coloraciones de concha poco comunes en las poblaciones silvestres suelen presentar tasas de crecimiento y supervivencia menores que aquellos con colores de concha más frecuentes. Conociendo que la variación del color de la concha en Argopecten purpuratus está bajo control genético, en este trabajo se pone a prueba la hipótesis de que los loci responsables de dicha variación pueden afectar el crecimiento, la supervivencia y la tasa de desarrollo de las larvas de esta especie. Se estimó la supervivencia y el crecimiento en progenies de cruzamientos dirigidos entre individuos de A. purpuratus con colores de concha blanco, naranja y marrón, y se verificó la existencia de diferencias en las tasas de desarrollo. El crecimiento de las larvas producidas en cruzamientos que incluyeron individuos marrones o blancos con naranja no mostraron diferencias entre sí. En cambio, las progenies producto de autofecundaciones de individuos naranja y blancos presentaron tasas de crecimiento significativamente menores que las anteriores y distintas entre sí. Las tasas de desarrollo y de supervivencia, en cambio, no mostraron diferencias entre las progenies de los distintos tipos de cruzamientos. Los resultados sugieren que los genes que controlan la variación del color en las conchas de juveniles y adultos de A. purpuratus afectarían la tasa de crecimiento de sus larvas, pero no la tasa de desarrollo ni su supervivencia.
Palabras claves: Argopecten purpuratus, ostión del norte, pectinidos, cultivo, desarrollo larval, color, Chile.
Referencia APA: Garcia, R. & Winkler, F. (2012). Asociacion del color de la concha de reproductores de Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819) con la supervivencia, crecimiento y desarrollo larval de sus progenies. Latin American Journal Of Aquatic Research, 40(2), 367-375.