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Estimating rat predation on Humboldt Penguin colonies in north-central Chile.

Autores:

Simeone, A. & Luna-Jorquera, G.

Resumen:

Rats (Rattus spp.) are among the most successful alien predators brought to islands by humans and have had devastating impacts on numerous seabird populations, but studies demonstrating rates of consumption and ecological impacts on penguins are scarce and mostly based on anecdotal evidence. We investigated the effects of rat predation on Humboldt Penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) by simulating unattended clutches with domestic Chicken eggs. Experiments were independently set at two Humboldt Penguin colonies in north (Pájaros Island, 29°S) and central Chile (Algarrobo Island, 33°S). At both colonies, eggs were primarily predated by rats (Rattus rattus = 70.8 % at Pájaros and Rattus norvegicus = 52.6 % at Algarrobo), and secondarily by Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus = 9.7 % at Pájaros and 15.8 % at Algarrobo). Significantly more eggs were predated at night. At both colonies, rates of rat and gull predation were highest within the first 12 h. Our study constitutes the first quantification of rats as important alien predators at Humboldt Penguin colonies. We suggest that rat presence at Humboldt Penguin colonies coupled with events that can cause temporary nest abandonment, such as human perturbation and El Niño events, may impact on the species’ breeding success. Eradication of rats is suggested to improve the nesting habitat of this and other threatened and endemic seabird species in the region.

Año: 2012

Palabras claves: Introduced species, Island conservation, Nest attendance, Alien predation, RattusPenguins

Referencia APA: Simeone, A. & Luna-Jorquera, G. (2012). Estimating rat predation on Humboldt Penguin colonies in north-central Chile. J Ornithol, 153(4), 1079-1085.

Estimaciones de crecimiento de Haliotis rufescens en cautiverio en el norte de Chile.

Autores:

Pérez E., Eduardo P. AU - Araya, AndreaTI.

Resumen:

El crecimiento en acuicultura es indicador directo de productividad,permite predecir el desarrollo del cultivo y la cosecha, afecta indirectamente el desempeño de variables tecnológicas y determina el tiempo necesario para obtener individuos de un tamaño específico, lo cual condiciona el beneficio económico de un cultivo. Estas condiciones requieren la toma de datos y descripción adecuada del crecimiento de la especie cultivada. En este trabajo se evalúan tres alternativas de ajuste de parámetros de crecimiento a partir de información recopilada en un centro de cultivo de abalón rojo Haliotis rufescens en Coquimbo, Chile, donde se midieron durante un año individuos de 1,4-4,3 años, por intervalos de tamaño de 15-25, 26-35, 36-45, 46-55 y 56-65mm de longitud. Para analizar la consistencia en la estimación de crecimiento, se utilizaron tres modelos: la ecuación de von Bertalanffy (ECVB), la versión con crecimiento estacionalizado de ECVB y el modelo generalizado de crecimiento de Schnute y Richards. Los tres modelos resultaron ser confiables para longitudes en edades de 1,4-4,3 años, y las curvas de ajuste pasan a través del centro de la nube de puntos. Coincide esta etapa con la fase de crecimiento exponencial de los organismos. Con un criterio estrictamente estadístico la ECVB en su versión estacionalizada es la más ajustada, por una menor suma de cuadrados. Dado que las extrapolaciones hacia edades mayores y menores resultan más exactas con el modelo generalizado de crecimiento, se concluye que éste representó mejor el crecimiento de H. rufescens en las condiciones locales de cultivo.

Año: 2012

Palabras claves:

Referencia APA: Pérez E., Eduardo P. AU - Araya, AndreaTI. (2012). Estimaciones de crecimiento de Haliotis rufescens en cautiverio en el norte de Chile. Interciencia, VL - 37IS - 2AB.

Anthropogenic structures as a spatial refuge from predation for the invasive bryozoan Bugula neritina.

Autores:

Dumont, C., Harris, L., & Gaymer, C.

Resumen:

Anthropogenic structures may play an important role in the marine invasion process by providing novel artificial habitats, often out of the reach of common benthic predators. A survey of piers in northern-central Chile revealed a change in the epibenthic assemblage on pilings at different distances from a rocky shore with abundant grazers and predators. Pilings on soft sediment, away from the rocky shore, were heavily colonized by the invasive bryozoan Bugula neritina. We therefore hypothesized that benthic predators may forage on pilings located on rocky bottom whereas pilings on soft sediment benefit from the absence of generalist benthic predators which do not occur on soft sediment. We examined piling communities using cages directly attached to pilings, where we included or excluded the sea urchin Tetrapygus niger and the rock shrimp Rhyncocinetes typus. Resultant communities differed substantially; a high percentage of bare space occurred in the presence of sea urchins, while turf algae dominated in the presence of shrimp. Both sea urchins and shrimp suppressed the colonization of the invasive B. neritina and, when acting together, totally prevented its recruitment. In contrast, invasive bryozoans colonized 95% of the available substratum in cages where predators were excluded. Our results show the important role of benthic generalist predators in limiting the establishment and spread of non-native species on anthropogenic structures. Further, this study highlights the unprecedented role of shrimp grazing in structuring hard-bottom communities.

Año: 2012

Palabras claves: Predation • Rock shrimp • Sea urchin • Invasive species • Fouling • Artificial hábitat.

Referencia APA: Dumont, C., Harris, L., & Gaymer, C. (2012). Anthropogenic structures as a spatial refuge from predation for the invasive bryozoan Bugula neritina. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 427, 95-103.