Seasonal and Multiannual Patterns in Avian Assemblage Structure and Composition in Northern Chilean Thorn-Scrub
Douglas A. Kelt, Andrew Engilis Jr., Juan Monárdez, Robert Walsh, Peter L. Meserve, And Julio R. Gutiérrez.
The species composition of the Chilean avifauna is well-defined taxonomically but is not well known ecologically. We sampled avian communities at a biosphere reserve in coastal north-central Chile in three seasons over six years (18 surveys total) and characterized them in terms of community structure and composition. The avifauna (S = 56 species) was dominated by insectivores (S = 20), carnivores (S = 14), and granivores (S = 13), with lesser contributions by omnivores (S = 5), nectarivores (S = 2), folivores (S = 1), and one vagrant piscivore. The fauna varied greatly between summer and winter, and in most years the breeding season also was distinct. Eighteen species constituted a core group of residents observed in nearly all surveys, but at least 15 species were nomadic or migratory. Our site supported more insectivorous species in winter but more granivores and omnivores in the breeding season, although this observation may be confounded by species' detectability. The structure of the set of species was nested temporally, but this was not clearly caused by seasonal influx supplementing a core fauna of residents. Ordination clearly segregated all three seasons, except for one survey that was explained by very dry conditions in that year. Further research will quantify productivity and demographic responses to long-term climatic variation to compare avian and mammalian patterns with respect to extrinsically generated pulses in resources (e.g., El Niño/Southern Oscillation).
Palabras claves: avian community structure, avian diversity, biosphere reserve, Chile, migration, seasonality, semiarid thorn scrub
Referencia APA: Douglas A. Kelt, Andrew Engilis Jr., Juan Monárdez, Robert Walsh, Peter L. Meserve, And Julio R. Gutiérrez. (2012). Seasonal and Multiannual Patterns in Avian Assemblage Structure and Composition in Northern Chilean Thorn-Scrub. The Condor, 114(1), 30-43.
Integrating Ecology and Environmental Ethics: Earth Stewardship in the Southern End of the Americas
Rozzi, R., Armesto, J.J., Gutiérrez, J.R., Massardo, F., Likens, G.E., Anderson, C.B., Poole, A., Moses, K.P., Hargrove, E., Mansilla, A.O., Kennedy, J.H., Willson, M., Jax, K., Jones, C.G., Callicott,J.B., and Arroyo, M.T.K.
The South American temperate and sub-Antarctic forests cover the longest latitudinal range in the Southern Hemisphere and include the world's southernmost forests. However, until now, this unique biome has been absent from global ecosystem research and monitoring networks. Moreover, the latitudinal range of between 40 degrees (°) south (S) and 60° S constitutes a conspicuous gap in the International Long-Term Ecological Research (ILTER) and other international networks. We first identify 10 globally salient attributes of biological and cultural diversity in southwestern South America. We then present the nascent Chilean Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research (LTSER) network, which will incorporate a new biome into ILTER. Finally, we introduce the field environmental philosophy methodology, developed by the Chilean LTSER network to integrate ecological sciences and environmental ethics into graduate education and biocultural conservation. This approach broadens the prevailing economic spectrum of social dimensions considered by LTSER programs and helps foster bioculturally diverse forms of Earth stewardship.
Palabras claves: conservation, temperate forests, sub-Antarctic ecoregion, long-term ecological research, field stations
Referencia APA: Rozzi, R., Armesto, J.J., Gutiérrez, J.R., Massardo, F., Likens, G.E., Anderson, C.B., Poole, A., Moses, K.P., Hargrove, E., Mansilla, A.O., Kennedy, J.H., Willson, M., Jax, K., Jones, C.G., Callicott,J.B., and Arroyo, M.T.K. (2012). Integrating Ecology and Environmental Ethics: Earth Stewardship in the Southern End of the Americas. Bioscience, 62(3), 226-236.
The ecology, distribution and conservation status of Myrcianthes coquimbensis : a globally endangered endemic shrub of the Chilean Coastal Desert
García-Guzman, P., Loayza, A., Carvajal, D., Letelier, L., & Squeo, F.
The current distribution of M. coquimbensis extends along 82.8 km of the Chilean coast, where the species is mainly threatened by habitat loss. Only 13% of the individuals flowered during 2010, and 66% of these plants lost their entire flower crop due to desiccation. Few seeds (7.5%) were lost to post-dispersal seed predation. The populations are composed mainly of adult plants (70% of the individuals), and little to no recruitment was observed.
Palabras claves: Atacama Desert, Chile, conservation biology, habitat loss, Myrtaceae, restricted-range species,
Referencia APA: García-Guzman, P., Loayza, A., Carvajal, D., Letelier, L., & Squeo, F. (2012). The ecology, distribution and conservation status of Myrcianthes coquimbensis: a globally endangered endemic shrub of the Chilean Coastal Desert. Plant Ecology & Diversity, 5(2), 197-204.
Progress in creating a joint research agenda that allows networked long-term socio-ecological research in southern South America: Addressing crucial technological and human capacity gaps limiting its application in Chile and Argentina.
Anderson, C., Celis-Diez, J., Bond, B., Martínez Pastur, G., Little, C., & Armesto, J., Ghersa, C., Austin, A., Schlichter, T., Lara, A., Carmona, M., Chaneton, E.J., Gutierrez, J.R.,et al.
Since 1980, more than 40 countries have implemented long-term ecological research (LTER) programs, which have shown their power to affect advances in basic science to understand the natural world at meaningful temporal and spatial scales and also help link research with socially relevant outcomes. Recently, a disciplinary paradigmatic shift has integrated the human dimensions of ecosystems, leading to a long-term socio-ecological research (LTSER) framework to address the world's current environmental challenges. A global gap in LTER/LTSER only exists in the latitudinal range of 40–60°S, corresponding to Argentina and Chile's temperate/sub-Antarctic biome. A team of Chilean, Argentine and US researchers has participated in an ongoing dialogue to define not only conceptual, but also practical barriers limiting LTER/LTSER in southern South America. We have found a number of existing long-term research sites and platforms throughout the region, but at the same time it has been concluded an agenda is needed to create and implement further training courses for students, postdoctoral fellows and young scientists, particularly in the areas of data and information management systems. Since LTER/LTSER efforts in Chile and Argentina are incipient, instituting such courses now will enhance human and technical capacity of the natural science and resource community to improve the collection, storage, analysis and dissemination of information in emerging LTER/LTSER platforms. In turn, having this capacity, as well as the ongoing formalization of LTER/LTSER programs at national levels, will allow the enhancement of crucial collaborations and comparisons between long-term research programs within the region and between hemispheres and continents. For Spanish version of the entire article, see Online Supporting Information (Appendix S1).
Palabras claves: environmental monitoring; information management; long-term ecological research; LTER; LTSER; science policy; socio-ecology
Referencia APA: Anderson, C., Celis-Diez, J., Bond, B., Martínez Pastur, G., Little, C., & Armesto, J., Ghersa, C., Austin, A., Schlichter, T., Lara, A., Carmona, M., Chaneton, E.J., Gutierrez, J.R., et al. (2012). Progress in creating a joint research agenda that allows networked long-term socio-ecological research in southern South America: Addressing crucial technological and human capacity gaps limiting its application in Chile and Argentina. Austral Ecology, 37(5), 529-536.
Leaf morphological and genetic divergence in populations of Drimys (Winteraceae) in Chile.
Jara-Arancio, P., Carmona, M., Correa, C., Squeo, F., & Arancio, G.
The genus Drimys is distributed in Chile from semiarid zones to sub-Antarctic forests; there are three species of this tree, D. andina, D. confertifolia and D. winteri, the latter with varieties chilensis and winteri. Northern populations are found in small disjunct natural refuges, specifically mountain cloud forests and the bottom of ravines. The size and continuity of populations are greater in the south, where wetter conditions prevail. Morphological differences between populations have been observed, particularly between the northern populations of Fray Jorge and Talinay. This observation, led to the following questions: a) what is the level of morphological and genetic divergence among the populations of Drimys in Chile? and b) do the populations from Fray Jorge/Talinay, currently classified as D. winteri var. chilensis, differ genetically from the other populations of this variety? To answer these questions, we collected leaf samples from 37 populations of all Chilean Drimys, performed leaf morphology analysis and estimated genetic divergence using RAPD markers. We found a high degree of leaf morphological and genetic divergence between the populations of Fray Jorge/Talinay and the other Chilean species of Drimys. The morphological and genetic divergence among varieties of D. winteri was greater than that among the species of Drimys, which may indicate problems with their taxonomic classification.
Palabras claves: Drimys; RAPD; Fray Jorge/Talinay; Divergence
Referencia APA: Jara-Arancio, P., Carmona, M., Correa, C., Squeo, F., & Arancio, G. (2012). Leaf morphological and genetic divergence in populations of Drimys (Winteraceae) in Chile. Genetics And Molecular Research, 11(1), 229-243.
No evidence of a trade-off between drought and shade tolerance in seedlings of six coastal desert shrub species in north-central Chile.
Martínez-Tillería, K., Loayza, A., Sandquist, D., & Squeo, F.
We found species-specific differences in the temporal pattern of mortality. Water and/or light levels affected seedling survival of all species, excluding C. chilensis. Relative growth rate (RGR) increased in low-light conditions in C. chilensis and P. revolutus, but otherwise did not vary in response to differences in either light or water, independently or to their interaction. Across species, the effect of water on specific leaf area (SLA) was inconsistent, increasing both in drought conditions (C. chilensis) and in treatments with supplemental water (S. cumingii). Additionally, SLA tended to increase with decreasing light levels for most species (F. thurifera, H. parvifolius, C. chilensis). In our study, only F. thrurifera and C. chilensis showed changes in leaf mass ratio (LMR) and only with respect to light levels; specifically, LMR tended to increase with decreasing light level. Biomass allocation was independent of light and water for all species except F. thurifera, which showed an increase in root biomass in drought conditions.
Palabras claves: Atacama desert; Biomass allocation; Centaurea chilensis ; Encelia canescens ; Flourensia thurifera ; Haplopappus parvifolius ; LMR ; Pleocarphus revolutus ; RGR ; Seedling performance; Senna cumingii ; SLA
Referencia APA: Martínez-Tillería, K., Loayza, A., Sandquist, D., & Squeo, F. (2012). No evidence of a trade-off between drought and shade tolerance in seedlings of six coastal desert shrub species in north-central Chile. J Veg Sci, 23(6), 1051-1061.
Application of high hydrostatic pressure to aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel: Microbial inactivation and evaluation of quality parameters
Vega-Gálvez, A., Giovagnoli, C., Pérez-Won, M., Reyes, J., Vergara, J., & Miranda, M. et al.
High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is an innovative technology which minimizes loss of physicochemical and nutritional quality matching consumer demands for fresh-like foods. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high hydrostatic pressure (300, 400 and 500 MPa/1, 3 and 5 min) on microbial inactivation and quality parameters of A. vera gel after 60 days of storage. Shelf life was determined successfully by fitting experimental microbial data to the modified Gompertz equation for samples treated at 300 MPa/1 min. The samples treated at 400 and 500 MPa during 1, 3 and 5 min presented undetectable levels of microorganisms' counts. Based on microbiological results, the analysis of quality attributes was focused on the effects of HHP (300, 400 and 500 MPa) during 5 min of processing. Antioxidant activity, which was analyzed by means of total polyphenols content and DPPH-radical scavenging activity, showed a maximum value at 500 MPa. At 400 MPa, vitamin C showed the maximum retention (93%) and vitamin E increased the initial value of the gel. An increase of polysaccharides at 500 MPa also affected the gel firmness. Differences in surface color were also observed. Based on results, application of 500 MPa during 5 min may be successfully used to preserve main quality attributes of A. vera gel.
Palabras claves: High hydrostatic pressure; Quality indices; Microbial growth; Shelf life; A. vera gel
Referencia APA: Vega-Gálvez, A., Giovagnoli, C., Pérez-Won, M., Reyes, J., Vergara, J., & Miranda, M. et al. (2012). Application of high hydrostatic pressure to aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel: Microbial inactivation and evaluation of quality parameters. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 13, 57-63
Effect of high pressure on the interactions of myofibrillar proteins from abalone (Haliotis rufencens) containing several food additives.
Barrios-Peralta, P., Pérez-Won, M., Tabilo-Munizaga, G., & Briones-Labarca, V.
Changes induced by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing on the chemical and functional properties of seafood proteins and their interactions with selected food additives, such as potato starch (PS), dried egg whites (EW) and agar, were studied at pressures ranging from 200 to 550 MPa for 3, 5 and 10 min. Phosphate buffers were used to extract abalone muscle myofibrillar proteins. Protein changes was studied by UV–visible spectroscopy and functionality by their emulsifying capacity. The results show changes in peak heights and the appearance of new peaks at 327 nm in pressurised samples with additives; however, interactions between myofibrillar proteins and food additives did not take place, the same was observed by SDS-PAGE, regardless of the pressure treatment applied. In contrast, the emulsifying capacity increased in samples with agar and PS treated at 350–550 MPa. The highest emulsifying capacity was obtained in samples with 4 g PS/100 mL of protein dilution at 450 MPa for 5 min, while the emulsifying capacity decreased at 200 MPa using 10 g EW/100 mL of protein. No changes in protein bands were observed for all samples, suggesting that high pressure did not influence changes in the molecular weights of the proteins.
Palabras claves: Myofibrillar protein; High hydrostatic pressure; Starch; Agar; Abalone.
Referencia APA: Barrios-Peralta, P., Pérez-Won, M., Tabilo-Munizaga, G., & Briones-Labarca, V. (2012). Effect of high pressure on the interactions of myofibrillar proteins from abalone (Haliotis rufencens) containing several food additives. LWT - Food Science And Technology, 49(1), 28-33.