Protected areas in Chile: are we managing them?
Petit, I., Campoy, A., Hevia, M., Gaymer, C. and Squeo, F.
Human population growth since the mid-1900s has been accompanied by an unsustainable use of natural resources and a corresponding impact on terrestrial and marine biota. In response, most states have established protected areas as tools to decrease biodiversity loss, being Chile one of the signatories of international conservation agreements such as the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the 2010 Aichi Targets. This study reviews the Chilean protected areas that have been created to date, with an emphasis on the existence and effectiveness of management plans for all terrestrial and marine protected areas.
Effectiveness was individually evaluated using two filters: 1) the age of the management plan and 2) the first four steps of the Protected Areas Management Effectiveness (PAME) methodology recommended by the IUCN.
We show that 84 out of a total of 145 protected areas (PAs), and only five out of a total of 20 marine protected areas (MPAs), have management plans. Only 12% (N = 16) of PAs are effectively managed; while in the marine realm, no MPA has an effective plan.
Our results show the lack of both the effectiveness of and updates to the management plans for the vast majority of the national territory and raise the following question: is it sustainable to continue adding protected areas to the national system even though it is clear that the existing support is insufficient to meet the minimum requirements for full implementation?
Palabras claves: AICHI targets, Biodiversity, Conservation, Chile, Effective management, MPA
Referencia APA: Petit, I., Campoy, A., Hevia, M., Gaymer, C. and Squeo, F. (2018). Protected areas in Chile: are we managing them?. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 91(1). dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40693-018-0071-z
The impact of different agroecological conditions on the nutritional composition of quinoa seeds
Reguera, M., Conesa, C., Gil-Gómez, A., Haros, C., Pérez-Casas, M., Briones-Labarca, V., Bolaños, L., Bonilla, I., Álvarez, R., Pinto, K., Mujica, Á. and Bascuñán-Godoy, L.
Quinoa cultivation has been expanded around the world in the last decade and is considered an exceptional crop with the potential of contributing to food security worldwide. The exceptional nutritional value of quinoa seeds relies on their high protein content, their amino acid profile that includes a good balance of essential amino acids, the mineral composition and the presence of antioxidants and other important nutrients such as fiber or vitamins. Although several studies have pointed to the influence of different environmental stresses in certain nutritional components little attention has been paid to the effect of the agroecological context on the nutritional properties of the seeds what may strongly impact on the consumer food's quality. Thus, aiming to evaluate the effect of the agroecological conditions on the nutritional profile of quinoa seeds we analyzed three quinoa cultivars (Salcedo-INIA, Titicaca and Regalona) at different locations (Spain, Peru and Chile). The results revealed that several nutritional parameters such as the amino acid profile, the protein content, the mineral composition and the phytate amount in the seeds depend on the location and cultivar while other parameters such as saponin or fiber were more stable across locations. Our results support the notion that nutritional characteristics of seeds may be determined by seed's origin and further analysis are needed to define the exact mechanisms that control the changes in the seeds nutritional properties.
Palabras claves: Agroecological conditions; Nutritional properties; Quinoa; Seed
Referencia APA: Reguera, M., Conesa, C., Gil-Gómez, A., Haros, C., Pérez-Casas, M., Briones-Labarca, V., Bolaños, L., Bonilla, I., Álvarez, R., Pinto, K., Mujica, Á. and Bascuñán-Godoy, L. (2018). The impact of different agroecological conditions on the nutritional composition of quinoa seeds. PeerJ, 6, p.e4442.
Roof-integrated dew water harvesting in Combarbalá, Chile
Carvajal, D., Minonzio, J., Casanga, E., Muñoz, J., Aracena, A., Montecinos, S., & Beysens, D.
Dew harvesting can be a supplementary source of freshwater in semiarid and arid areas. Several experiments on small-scale dew condensers (usually of 1 m2) have been carried out in many places in the world; however, few experiments have been conducted on large-scale collectors integrated into buildings. This work aims to assess one year of dew water harvesting in Combarbalá (Chile) using a painted galvanised steel roof as collecting surface. The roof (36 m2) was coated with a high-infrared-emissivity paint containing aluminosilicate minerals (OPUR, France). Dew measurements were conducted daily from September 2014 to August 2015. The dew yield and its relationship with meteorological variables were analysed. The results show that despite the low nocturnal relative humidity throughout the year (average: 48%), dew collection occurred on 56.1% of the recorded days. The daily average collection rate was 1.9 L d−1, with a maximum of 15 L d−1. The maximum daily dew yield is correlated strongly with relative humidity and correlated weakly with air temperature and wind speed. Considering the same rooftop can collect dew and rain, it was estimated that over one year dew water could contribute to roughly 8.2% of the total water collected, considering both sources.
Palabras claves: Atmospheric water, dew collection, radiative cooling, water resources
Referencia APA: Carvajal, D., Minonzio, J., Casanga, E., Muñoz, J., Aracena, A., Montecinos, S., & Beysens, D. (2018). Roof-integrated dew water harvesting in Combarbalá, Chile. Journal Of Water Supply: Research And Technology - Aqua, 67(4), 357-374. doi: 10.2166/aqua.2018.174
Oenological and Quality Characteristic on Young White Wines (Sauvignon Blanc): Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing
Briones-Labarca, V., Perez-Wom, M., Habib, G., Giovagnoli-Vicuña, C., Cañas-Sarazua, R., Tabilo-Munizaga, G., & Salazar, F. N.
High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has shown to have an effect of enhancing some properties without detrimental effects on important quality characteristics, such as colour, pH, and turbidity. This suggests that this technique can be used as an alternative to the existing methods used in wine industry processing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HHP on aroma compounds and also sensory and quality properties of young white wine. HHP treatment did not influence physicochemical parameters, total phenols, and flavonoid contents of white wine; however, the results from analysis of wine indicate that there was a great variation in the concentration of free and total sulphur dioxide (SO2) values and antioxidant capacity of white wine after HHP application. The sensory attributes, such as taste, odour, and overall quality, were not affected by HHP processing at 300 MPa. The chromatic characteristics changed slightly after applying HHP, but these changes could not be visually perceived because they were less than 5%. The use of this technique has the potential to decrease the amount of SO2 added to raw grapes thus maintaining the same properties found in untreated wine. This study provided valuable insights into the biochemical and sensory composition of commercial white wine and how this might change during HHP processing.
Referencia APA: Briones-Labarca, V., Perez-Wom, M., Habib, G., Giovagnoli-Vicuña, C., Cañas-Sarazua, R., Tabilo-Munizaga, G., & Salazar, F. N. (2017). Oenological and Quality Characteristic on Young White Wines (Sauvignon Blanc): Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing. Journal of Food Quality, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8524073
Comparative population genetics of two dominant plant species of high Andean wetlands reveals complex evolutionary histories and conservation perspectives in Chile’s Norte Chico
Troncoso, A. J., Bertin, A., Osorio, R., Arancio, G., & Gouin, N.
High Andean wetlands are naturally fragmented ecosystems that are impacted by anthropogenic activities. Although they constitute important reservoirs of biodiversity and ecosystem service providers, many aspects of their ecology are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the population genetic structure of two dominant and highly interactive plant species of high altitude wetlands, Patosia clandestina (Juncaceae) and Carex gayana (Cyperaceae), in 21 high Andean wetlands of Chile’s Norte Chico. Using rbcL gene sequences and AFLP markers, we found that both species displayed low levels of within-wetland genetic diversity, high inter-population genetic differentiation, and spatially-dependent genetic variation arising from isolation-by-distance. The distance at which populations become genetically independent was of the same order of magnitude in both species (125–175 km). Despite these similarities, idiosyncratic spatial patterns were detected. C. gayana in the three most northeastern wetlands demonstrated marked differences relative to the rest of the populations, with the latter group following a latitudinal stepping-stone pattern. In P. clandestina, a genetic barrier was found to divide the northern and southern populations into two balanced groups, and spatial genetic variation was consistent with a hierarchical island model. The data indicate that each of the two species likely responded to different geological and ecological events, resulting in the definition of unique evolutionarily significant units in both. These results suggest that the implementation of global conservation programs at regional scales would likely result in the loss of important components of biodiversity in these ecosystems, and underscore the need for caution in designing effective conservation strategies.
Palabras claves: AFLP, Carex gayana, Genetic diversity, Patosia clandestina, Population differentiation, Evolutionarily significant units
Referencia APA: Troncoso, A. J., Bertin, A., Osorio, R., Arancio, G., & Gouin, N. (2017). Comparative population genetics of two dominant plant species of high Andean wetlands reveals complex evolutionary histories and conservation perspectives in Chile’s Norte Chico. Conservation Genetics, 18(5), 1047-1060. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10592-017-0957-3
On the indiscriminate use of imported emission factors in environmental impact assessment: A case study in Chile
Bernal, M. F., Oyarzún, J., & Oyarzún, R.
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) aims to determine if the environmental effect of an activity or project complies with standards and regulations. A primary component of the environment to evaluate is air and the effect that various activities can have on its quality. To this end, emission factors (EFs), which are empirical coefficients or mathematical relationships, are normally used. The present research critically analyzes the implications and consequences of using imported EFs in environmental impact studies (EISs), taking as case of study the situation in Chile. Among the main results, the widespread use of EFs in EISs in the country and the lack of assessments of their actual applicability stand out. In addition, the official guidelines related to emissions estimation that are used for EIA in the country mostly include EFs derived elsewhere, without considering the recommendations or restrictions that the original sources indicate for their use. Finally, the broad use of default values defined for the Metropolitan Region in Central Chile, is highly questionable for a country that extends north-south along more than 35° of latitude, with wide variability in climate, traffic conditions, population, soil types, etc. Finally, it is very likely that situations similar to those observed in the present work occurs in other countries with young environmental impact assessment systems, and therefore, that the results herein presented should be of general interest and relevance.
Palabras claves: Empirical models, Law 20417, Air quality, Environmental management
Referencia APA: Bernal, M. F., Oyarzún, J., & Oyarzún, R. (2017). On the indiscriminate use of imported emission factors in environmental impact assessment: A case study in Chile. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 64, 123-130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2017.03.006
A simple approach for the analysis of the structural-geologic control of groundwater in an arid rural, mid-mountain, granitic and volcanic-sedimentary terrain: The case of the Coquimbo Region, North-Central Chile
Oyarzún, R., Oyarzún, J., Fairley, J. P., Núñez, J., Gómez, N., Arumí, J. L., & Maturana, H.
A practical approach for the assessment of surface water and groundwater resources in rain-fed mid-mountain domains of arid to semi-arid zones is much needed, especially in rural areas for which groundwater is the only reliable and permanent water supply source. This is the case in the Coquimbo region (29°15′- 32°10′ S latitude) of north-central Chile, where groundwater is needed for human consumption but also for agricultural and mining activities at a small to medium scale. This paper examines the usefulness of community knowledge, as encoded in the historical record, for identifying water resources. The existing record of wells and springs in the Coquimbo region is used as a guide to the identification and characterization of structural patterns that may influence the distribution of water resources. The proposed approach combines simple graphical, statistical and geostatistical methods to identify patterns, likely related to local and regional structural controls that influence the distribution of groundwater resources. In the Coquimbo area, these influences tend to align in NW and NE orientations that approximately coincide with regional geological trends. The methodology presented has the potential to form a first step in the search for additional water resources in the Coquimbo region, and may be useful for targeting detailed field studies on the basis of community and historical knowledge in many arid and semi-arid rural areas.
Palabras claves: Wells, Springs, Rain-fed area, Drylands, Geohydrology
Referencia APA: Oyarzún, R., Oyarzún, J., Fairley, J. P., Núñez, J., Gómez, N., Arumí, J. L., & Maturana, H. (2017). A simple approach for the analysis of the structural-geologic control of groundwater in an arid rural, mid-mountain, granitic and volcanic-sedimentary terrain: The case of the Coquimbo Region, North-Central Chile. Journal of Arid Environments, 142, 31-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2017.03.003
Landscape connectivity among remnant populations of guanaco (Lama guanicoe Müller, 1776) in an arid region of Chile impacted by global change
Espinoza, M. I., Gouin, N., Porcile, F. A. S., Aspe, D. L., & Bertin, A.
Connectivity between populations plays a key role in the long-term persistence of species in fragmented habitats. This is of particular concern for biodiversity preservation in drylands, since water limited landscapes are typically characterized by little suitable habitat cover, high habitat fragmentation, harsh matrices, and are being rapidly degraded at a global scale. In this study, we modelled landscape connectivity between 11 guanaco Lama guanicoe populations in Chile’s arid Norte Chico, a region that supports the last remnant coastal populations of this emblematic herbivore indigenous to South America. We produced a habitat suitability model to derive a regional surface resistance map, and used circuit theory to map functional connectivity, investigate the relative isolation between populations, and identify those that contribute most to the patch connectivity network. Predicted suitable habitat for L. guanicoe represented about 25% of the study region (i.e., 29,173 km2) and was heterogeneously distributed along a continuous stretch along the Andes, and discontinuous patches along the coast. As a result, we found that high connectivity current flows in the mid and high Andes formed a wide, continuous connectivity corridor, enabling connectivity between all high Andean populations. Coastal populations, in contrast, were more isolated. These groups demonstrate no inter-population connectivity between themselves, only with higher altitude populations, and for two of them, animal movement was linked to the effectiveness of wildlife crossings along the Pan-American highway. Our results indicate that functional connectivity is an issue of concern for L. guanicoe in Chile’s Norte Chico, implying that future conservation and management plans should emphasize strategies aimed at conserving functional connectivity between coastal and Andean populations, as well as the protection of habitat patches likely to act as stepping stones within the connectivity network.
Referencia APA: Espinoza, M. I., Gouin, N., Porcile, F. A. S., Aspe, D. L., & Bertin, A. (2017). Landscape connectivity among remnant populations of guanaco (Lama guanicoe Müller, 1776) in an arid region of Chile impacted by global change. PeerJ PrePrints. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.4429
Population variation in drought-resistance strategies in a desert shrub along an aridity gradient: Interplay between phenotypic plasticity and ecotypic differentiation
Carvajal, D. E., Loayza, A. P., Rios, R. S., Gianoli, E., & Squeo, F. A.
Adaptations to drought of deciduous and evergreen species in arid environments are associated with resource-acquisitive (drought avoidance) and resource-conservative (drought tolerance) strategies of water use, respectively. Few studies have addressed whether a single species can exhibit both drought avoidance and drought tolerance strategies along an aridity gradient, and none have evaluated the role of ecotypic differentiation and phenotypic plasticity in shaping such strategies. In the desert shrub Encelia canescens, distributed along an aridity gradient in the Atacama Desert, we hypothesized that populations located in sites with lower and more variable rainfall (northern populations) would exhibit patterns of trait means and plasticity reflecting a water-conservative strategy, while populations in less arid and less variable environments (southern populations) would exhibit a water-acquisitive strategy. We also tested the hypothesis that functional variation in trait means and plasticity are not alternative mechanisms of adaptation to the environment. In a common garden experiment using plants from seeds collected from six populations spanning the species distribution range we found that plants from the northern populations were smaller, had fewer leaves, lower photosynthetic rates and had higher plasticity for root:shoot ratios and lower plasticity for leaf shedding, suggesting a resource-conservative strategy compared to plants from the southern populations, which showed a resource-acquisitive strategy. We found no association between variation in trait means and plasticity, which indicates that these are not alternative mechanisms of plant adaptation to environmental variation. Results suggest that E. canescens populations have evolved different strategies to cope with drought stress depending on their location along the Atacama Desert’s aridity gradient. This gives us a better understanding of the ecological and evolutionary processes that drive phenotypic variation among populations.
Palabras claves: Atacama desert, Arid environments, Drought resistance, Intraspecific variation, Phenotypic plasticity, Encelia canescens
Referencia APA: Carvajal, D. E., Loayza, A. P., Rios, R. S., Gianoli, E., & Squeo, F. A. (2017). Population variation in drought-resistance strategies in a desert shrub along an aridity gradient: Interplay between phenotypic plasticity and ecotypic differentiation. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 29, 12-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ppees.2017.10.001
Conspecific plants are better ‘nurses’ than rocks: consistent results revealing intraspecific facilitation as a process that promotes establishment in a hyper-arid environment
Loayza, A. P., Herrera-Madariaga, M. A., Carvajal, D. E., García-Guzmán, P., & Squeo, F. A.
Harsh environmental conditions in arid ecosystems limit seedling recruitment to microhabitats under nurse structures, such as shrubs or rocks. These structures, however, do not necessarily afford the same benefits to plants because nurse rocks provide only physical nurse effects, whereas nurse plants can provide both physical and biological nurse effects. Nevertheless, if the nurse plant is a conspecific, the benefits it provides may be outweighed by higher mortality due to negative density-dependent processes; consequently, negative density-dependence is expected to limit plants from acting as nurses to their own seedlings. The degree to which an abiotic nurse may be more beneficial than a conspecific one remains largely unexplored. Here, we examine the role and elucidate the mechanisms by which conspecific plants and rocks promote plant establishment in a hyper-arid desert. For 4 years, we examined establishment patterns of Myrcianthes coquimbensis (Myrtaceae), a threatened desert shrub that recruits solely in rock cavities and under conspecific shrubs. Specifically, we characterized these microhabitats, as well as open interspaces for comparison, and conducted germination, seed removal and seedling survival experiments. Our results revealed that conspecific shrubs and nurse rocks modified environmental conditions in similar ways; soil and air temperatures were lower, and water availability was higher than in open interspaces. We found no evidence on negative density-dependent recruitment: seed removal was lowest and seedling emergence highest under conspecific plants, moreover seedling survival probabilities were similar in rock cavities and under conspecific plants. We conclude that the probability of establishment was highest under conspecific plants than in other microhabitats, contrasting what is expected under the Janzen–Connell recruitment model. We suggest that for species living in stressful environments, population regulation may be a function of positive density-dependence and intraspecific facilitation may be a process that promotes the persistence of some plant species within a community.
Referencia APA: Loayza, A. P., Herrera-Madariaga, M. A., Carvajal, D. E., García-Guzmán, P., & Squeo, F. A. (2017). Conspecific plants are better ‘nurses’ than rocks: consistent results revealing intraspecific facilitation as a process that promotes establishment in a hyper-arid environment. AoB Plants, 9(6), plx056. https://doi.org/10.1093/aobpla/plx056
Uso del Test de Rendimiento Continuo de Conners para diferenciar niños normales y con TDAH en Chile.
Salas-Bravo, S., Gonzalez-Arias, M., Araya-Piñones, A., Valencia-Jimenez, M., & Oyarce-Cortes, S.
El trastorno de déficit atencional con hiperactividad (TDAH) constituye uno de los cuadros de mayor prevalencia durante la niñez. El presente trabajo se focalizó en evaluar si el Test de Rendimiento Continuo de Conners era capaz de discriminar entre niños con y sin TDAH diagnosticados por el docente. Se conformó una muestra no probabilística de 30 niños escolares (15 clínicos y 15 normales) a través de la aplicación del cuestionario de atención. Todos los niños completaron la aplicación del test computarizado de Conners. Se observaron diferencias significativas entre la muestra normal y clínica. Todos los niños seleccionados como normales no encajaron el perfil clínico. Solo el 50% de los casos considerados con TDAH encajaron el perfil clínico. Se analizan las implicancias del sobre/diagnóstico del trastorno.
Palabras claves: TDAH, Test de rendimiento continuo, Diagnóstico, Escalas diagnósticas
Referencia APA: Salas-Bravo, S., Gonzalez-Arias, M., Araya-Piñones, A., Valencia-Jimenez, M., & Oyarce-Cortes, S. (2017). Uso del Test de Rendimiento Continuo de Conners para diferenciar niños normales y con TDAH en Chile. Terapia Psicológica, 35(3), 283-291. https://scielo.conicyt.cl/pdf/terpsicol/v35n3/0716-6184-terpsicol-35-03-0283.pdf
Surface water quality in a sulfide mineral‐rich arid zone in North‐Central Chile: Learning from a complex past, addressing an uncertain future
Flores, M., Núñez, J., Oyarzún, J., Freixas, G., Maturana, H., & Oyarzún, R.
This study presents an analysis of up to 30 years of hydrological variables and selected waterquality parameters (pH, SO4, Fe, Cu, and As) in the upper area of the Elqui River basin inNorth‐Central Chile. A correlation analysis determined statistically significant positive relation-ship for SO4‐Cu, Fe‐As, and Fe‐Cu. In terms of historical behaviour, no statistically significanttrends were detected for precipitation or temperature. In contrast, for flow, there is an overalldecreasing pattern for the entire area of study, although only in one case this trend was statisti-cally significant. Along with the aforementioned analysis, a characterization of the flow‐waterquality relationships is considered for the time period analyzed. Although erratic behaviours wereconfirmed, a negative (i.e., inverse) flow‐concentration relationship was identified for SO4, a pos-itive (i.e., direct) relationship for Fe, and undefined relationships for As and Cu were obtained.From these analyses and based on previous studies on projections regarding climate change forthe Andean region, and in particular for the upper Elqui zone, an estimation of the possible effectsof the change in water regimes on water quality in the area of study is developed. It is likely that adecrease in surface flow, as a consequence of climate change could translate into improvementsin water quality in terms of Fe and eventually As and Cu, but into an impairment in the case ofSO4. In any case, this is a complex situation that demands special attention in the face of indus-trial activities that could be developed in tributaries like the Claro River, which currently play animportant role in depurating or diluting contaminants in the waters of the Elqui River. Finally, itshould be noted that this study addresses an issue that goes beyond the local interest and couldbe used as a reference to compare other transitional environments containing sulphide ores orareas of hydrothermal alterations, which are considered to be highly vulnerable to climate changeand variability.
Palabras claves: Acid rock drainage, Andean river, arid zone, Coquimbo region
Referencia APA: Flores, M., Núñez, J., Oyarzún, J., Freixas, G., Maturana, H., & Oyarzún, R. (2017). Surface water quality in a sulfide mineral‐rich arid zone in North‐Central Chile: Learning from a complex past, addressing an uncertain future. Hydrological Processes, 31(3), 498-513. http://doi.dx.org/10.1002/hyp.11086